U. S. AIRCRAFT CARRIER EVOLUTION
Part II of II (2013 to 2016)
A Sailors tale of his Tour of duty in the U.S. Navy - Operation Evening Light And Eagle Claw -
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Operations Evening Light and Eagle Claw (24 April 1980) Iran and Air Arm History (1941 to Present)
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USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA Vol. I (10 July 1944 to 31 December 1975) -
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USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. II (1 January 1976 to 25 August 1981) -
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USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. III (20 August 1981 to 26 April 1990) -
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U. S. AIRCRAFT
HISTORY (1920 to 2016)
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Library of Congress
U. S. AIRCRAFT
(1953 to 2016)
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Library of Congress
U. S. AIRCRAFT CARRIER EVOLUTION
Part I of II (1920 to 2012)
Part II of II (2013 to Present)
Navy CVN-21 Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress
“All U.S. aircraft carriers procured since FY1958 have been built by Northrop Grumman's Newport News Shipbuilding (NGNN) of Newport News, VA -- the only U.S. shipyard that can build large-deck, nuclear-powered aircraft carriers. The aircraft carrier construction industrial base also includes hundreds of subcontractors and suppliers in dozens of states” (Ref. L & 8-N).
Navy CVN-21 Aircraft Carrier Program: Potential Reduction in Carrier Force
“A third potential issue for Congress concerns the Navy's proposal to retire the Kennedy in FY2006 and thereby reduce the carrier force to 11 ships, and the possibility that the Navy might eventually reduce the carrier force further, to 10 or 9 ships. Such a reduction might not affect plans for procuring CVN-21, but it could affect plans for procuring CVN-79 and subsequent carriers. The Navy believes that reducing the carrier force to 11 ships, or possibly fewer, is acceptable in light of the increasing capabilities of Navy carrier air wings and steps that have been taken to increase the ability of carriers to deploy rapidly in response to crises and conflicts. Other observers argue that there are good reasons to maintain a force of at least 12 carriers” (Ref. L & 8-N).
Navy CVN-21 Aircraft Carrier Program: H.R. 1815/S. 1042 (FY2006 Defense Authorization Bill)
“Section 129 of the FY2006 defense authorization bill (H.R. 1815) as reported by the House Armed Services Committee (H. Rept. 109-89 of May 20, 2005) would increase the FY2006 advance procurement funding request for CVN-21 by $86.7 million if DOD certifies to Congress that this amount would permit construction of CVN-21 to begin in FY2007 rather than FY2008. The report noted the cost of CVN-21 as part of a critical discussion of the increasing costs of Navy shipbuilding programs. (Page 63)” (Ref. L & N).
“Section 122 of the FY2006 defense authorization bill (S. 1042) as reported by the Senate Armed Services Committee (S. Rept. 109-69 of May 17, 2005) would permit CVN-21 to be procured with split funding (i.e., incremental funding) during the period FY2007-FY2010” (Ref. L & 10-N).
“The report expressed concern about the Navy's plan to defer procurement of CVN-21 from FY2007 to FY2008 because of the effect this would have on increasing the cost of CVN-21 and increasing the gap in time between the retirement of the Enterprise and its replacement by CVN-21. The report recommended increasing the FY2006 advance procurement funding request for the ship by $86.7 million so as to support the acceleration of procurement of CVN-21 to FY2007. (Pages 66-67; see also page 50)” (Ref. L & N).
Aircraft Carriers – CV &CVN:
“Global considerations include the Caribbean, Western Pacific Ocean, Mediterranean Sea/Europe, Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. It is generally recognized that 15 carriers (5 to 1 ratio) would be necessary to support all these contingencies in peace time due to sailor rotation, pre deployment exercises and length of time spent in port due to overhaul and maintenance. At present, the U.S Navy could respond with 10 carriers if a World wide conflict occurred, referred to by some as World War III. In post cold war years, limited gaps of carrier presence in these areas have been acceptable.
Congress, in acting on the FY2006 defense budget, passed a provision requiring the Navy to maintain a 12-ship carrier force. The issue for Congress for FY2007, as it was for FY2006, was whether to approve, reject, or modify the proposal to retire the Kennedy and reduce the carrier force to 11 active ships, while at least one carrier will be under going RCOH every 3 ½ years.
“Nov 16/06: A $65.3 million cost-plus-fixed fee, level of effort contract for FY 2007 advance planning in preparation for the refueling and complex overhaul (RCOH) of the USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) and its reactor plants. Northrop Grumman's Newport News will perform the advance planning, design, documentation, engineering, material procurement, shipboard inspections, fabrication, and preliminary shipyard or support facility work. This contract was not competitively procured (N00024-07-C-2117)” (Ref. K).
Navy CVN-21 Aircraft Carrier Program: Potential Issues for Congress
“Accelerating CVN-21 to FY2007. One potential issue for Congress concerns CVN-21's year of procurement. Deferring CVN-21's procurement to FY2008, and thus its entry into service to 2015, will create a minimum one-year gap between the retirement of the Enterprise in 2012-2014 and its replacement by CVN-21, temporarily reducing the accelerating procurement of CVN-21 back to FY2007 to reduce the operational risks of a temporary reduction in the carrier force and to avoid the roughly $400-million cost increase of procuring the ship in FY2008” (Ref. L & 5-N).
“Until recently Navy plans have called for procuring CVN-79 (previously called the CVN-21 Follow-On and before that, CVNX-2) in FY2011 and commissioning it into service in 2018 as the replacement for the John F. Kennedy, which would then be 50 years old. The FY2006-FY2011 FYDP, however, defers procurement of CVN-79 beyond FY2011.
And as mentioned earlier, the Navy proposed to retire the John F. Kennedy in FY2006. Compared to CVN-21, CVN-79 would feature a more significantly redesigned flight deck, an electromagnetic arresting gear, and possibly hull-design improvements, including reactive armor protection” (Ref. L & N).
“Navy aircraft carrier acquisition efforts currently revolve around the CVN-21 program.
CVN-21 is the Navy's next planned aircraft carrier. Congress has been providing advance procurement funding for the ship since FY2001. The Navy's FY2006 budget submission requests $565 million in FY2006 advance procurement funding for the ship and defers its procurement by one year, to FY2008. The Navy estimates that CVN-21 would cost about $3.2 billion to develop and about $10.5 billion to procure, for a total estimated acquisition cost of about $13.7 billion.
This estimate is $2 billion higher than the Navy's estimate from early 2004. The Navy estimates that about $400 million of this increase is due to the decision to defer the procurement of the ship to FY2008. This report will be updated as events warrant by the U. S. Navy at reference” (Ref. L & N).
“CVN-21 is to be the replacement for the Enterprise, which is scheduled to retire in 2012-2014, at age 51-53, depending on how long its nuclear fuel core lasts. The Navy's FY2006 budget submission defers the procurement of CVN-21 by one year, to FY2008. If procured in FY2008, CVN-21 would enter service in 2015” (Ref. L & N).
“The Navy wants to procure several other expensive ships in FY2007, including the lead DD(X) destroyer and the LHA(R) amphibious ship” (Ref. L & 5-N).
“Accelerating CVN-21 to FY2007 might require deferring procurement [of] one of these ships, or some other ship planned for FY2007, to FY2008 or another year. One option for accelerating CVN-21 to FY2007 without necessarily deferring another ship from FY2007 to a later year would be to use incremental funding or advance appropriations to fund either CVN-21 or one or more of the ships now planned for FY2007” (Ref. L & 6-N).
“NEWPORT NEWS, Va., Jan. 4, 2008 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Northrop Grumman Corporation (NYSE:NOC) has been awarded a planning contract option from the U.S. Navy for the refueling and complex overhaul of the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71).
This option is valued at $186.4 million and continues work awarded in 2006. The total estimated value of the contract is $558.2 million. A photo accompanying this release is available at http://media.primezone.com/noc/
The company's Newport News sector will perform the work, which includes planning, design, documentation, engineering, material procurement, shipboard inspections, fabrication and preliminary shipyard or support facility work. The carrier is scheduled to arrive at the Newport News shipyard in 2009 for its first and only refueling during a service life expected to span approximately 50 years.
"Our shipbuilders and Navy teammates are working together as a team to plan USS Theodore Roosevelt's refueling and complex overhaul," said Ken Mahler, vice president of aircraft carrier overhaul programs for Northrop Grumman's Newport News sector. "This collaboration continues our partnership with our Navy teammates and will help to ensure successful accomplishment of this major program."
Launched in 1984 and delivered to the Navy in 1986, the USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) is the fourth Nimitz-class carrier built by Northrop Grumman, the nation's sole designer, builder and refueler of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers. It will also be the fourth ship of the class to undergo this major life-cycle milestone. More than 1,300 employees will support the planning effort.
Northrop Grumman Corporation is a $31.5 billion global defense and technology company whose 120,000 employees provide innovative systems, products, and solutions in information and services, electronics, aerospace and shipbuilding to government and commercial customers worldwide” (Ref. 1097).
Navy CVN-21 Aircraft Carrier Program: USS Gerald Ford (CVN-78):
“Under the Navy's proposed funding plan, 35.2% of CVN-21's procurement cost is to be provided in the form of advance procurement funding between FY2001 and FY2007, 33.5% is to be provided in the procurement year of FY2008, and 31.3% is to be provided in FY2009. Dividing the main portion of the ship's procurement cost between two years (FY2008 and FY2009) is called split funding, which is a form of incremental funding. Some Navy officials, Members of Congress, and industry officials have called for making greater use of incremental funding or another funding approach called advance appropriations for funding expensive ships like CVN-21” (Ref. L & 2-N).
CVN-80 is the third ship in the 3-ship CVN-21 program. It nominally would be procured a few years after CVN-79.
Table 1. Procurement and Development Funding for CVN-21 and CVN-79, FY2001-FY2011 (millions of then-year dollars, rounded to nearest million; figures may not add due to rounding) - Ref. L & N
070116-N-3642E-063 Washington, D.C. (Jan. 16, 2007) - Secretary of the Navy (SECNAV), the Honorable Dr. Donald C. Winter speaks to an audience of 300 during the official naming ceremony of the USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78), the first aircraft carrier in the Ford class of carriers. U.S. Navy photo by Chief Mass Communication Specialist Shawn P. Eklund (RELEASED)
Navy Names Newest Carrier After President Ford
“Secretary of the Navy Donald C. Winter announced Jan. 16, 2007 the selection of Gerald R. Ford as the name of the first aircraft carrier in what will be the Gerald R. Ford class of carriers. The selection honors the 38th President of the United States and pays tribute to his lifetime of service in the Navy, in the U.S. government and to the nation. "President Gerald R. Ford provided the United States great leadership at a time of constitutional crisis," said Winter.
"I am honored to have the opportunity to name the first ship in the new class of aircraft carriers after this great Sailor, this great leader, this great man." Born in Omaha, Neb., in 1913, Ford grew up in Grand Rapids, Mich. He starred on the University of Michigan football team where he was a center and team most valuable player in 1934. After graduation he attended Yale Law School, where he served as assistant football coach while earning his law degree.
USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) will be the premier forward asset for crisis response and early decisive striking power in a major combat operation. The carrier and the carrier strike group will provide forward presence, rapid response, endurance on station, and multi-mission capability. Gerald R. Ford and subsequent Ford class carriers will provide improved war fighting capability, quality of life improvements for sailors and reduced acquisition and life cycle costs” (Ref. F).
“With flags around the nation still at half staff in memory of the late President Gerald R. Ford, Vice President Richard B. Cheney January 16, 2007 called today’s naming of the Navy’s newest aircraft carrier in Ford’s honor an even more fitting tribute because it looks to the future. Speaking today at the Pentagon naming ceremony for the ship, Cheney joined Navy Secretary Donald C. Winter and other officials and servicemembers in naming the first of the new CVN-21 class of aircraft carrier the USS Gerald R. Ford.
The new class will replace the USS Enterprise and CVN-68 class carriers. When USS Gerald R. Ford enters the Navy fleet in seven or eight years, it and its sister ships “will help ensure the sea power of the United States for the next half century,” the vice president said. Winter described the capability the new carriers will bring to the fleet. “This fleet of the most technologically advanced aircraft carriers in the world will be the Navy’s premier forward asset for crisis response and principal platforms in providing early, decisive striking power in a major combat operation,” he told the audience.
The new carriers will be able to generate 25 percent more aircraft sorties than current carriers, generate three times the electricity, and include an improved, fully integrated warfare system and other new design technologies, he said. “CVN-21 is an investment in our future, and the Department of the Navy is urgently moving forward to turn our plans into reality,” Winter said. Cheney described the technical marvel the USS Gerald Ford will present when it hits the high seas.
“When completed, the USS Gerald R. Ford will be a sight to behold: 100,000 tons of American ingenuity and power, riding 20 stories above water level, about as long as the Empire State Building, and able to sail the oceans for 20 years without refueling,” he said. Winter said USS Gerald Ford and its sister carriers will send a message wherever they sail. “A U.S. Navy aircraft carrier is a symbol recognized around the world,” he said. “It represents American power.
It is a reminder of America’s global interests and global reach. It is, in the eyes of freedom-loving people everywhere, a safeguard in a troubled and dangerous world.” As an example, he noted the Jan. 11 announcement that President Bush had ordered an additional carrier strike group, the USS Stennis (CVN-74) group, to the Middle East. “We do not expect this to be the last time the commander in chief will be turning to Navy carriers to respond immediately to a crisis far from our shores,” Winter said.
Winter called the naming of the first CVN-78 carrier after Ford a fitting way to honor the former president’s service and recognize his deep, lifelong personal connection to aircraft carriers. “He served aboard a carrier during (World War II),” Winter said of Ford. “As president, he commanded carriers in the fleet. During his tenure as president, he also commissioned USS Nimitz (CVN-68), the first in its class of nuclear-powered carriers. “No one would have appreciated more the honor of having a carrier named after him than President Ford,” Winter said.
070323-N-8544C-097 MAYPORT, Fla. (March 23, 2007) - Distinguished visitors and guests attend the historical decommissioning ceremony of the aircraft carrier USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67). Kennedy served its country with more than 38 years of service and 18 official deployments. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Susan Cornell (RELEASED)
Aircraft Carriers – CV &CVN: COMMISSIONED CARRIERS
CVN-68; CVN-69; CVN-70; CVN-71; CVN-72; CVN-73; CVN-74; CVN-75; CVN-76; CVN-77 and CVN-78
Commencing with the Antietam (CVS-36), former CVA-36 & CV-36, hull number would no longer be in order of constructed carrier, and of the total carriers commissioned less those cancelled, hull number counting remained consistent, while the actual number of commissioned carries as of George Bush (CVN-77) total 65. The 1st ship in the new series of hull numbers begins with CVN-21 (66th).
Actual construction began in January 2007 at Northrop Grumman Corp.'s Newport News shipyard. Initial capability is set for 2015. CVN-22 (2nd ship in the new series) will commence construction in January 2011, planned to join the fleet in 2018. CVN-23 (3rd ship in the new series) scheduled to replace CVN-68 Nimitz in 2024.
The U.S. Navy's Aircraft Carrier force planning document as early as 1947, seen as the beginning of the cold war, called for 12 CVAs. The Navy's carrier strength has averaged between 12 to 15 with the exception of Korea and Vietnam until 2001 and has remained at 12 until 2007, with the decommissioning of USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) in Mayport, Fla., March 23, 2007 and formally decommissioned on 30 September 2007.
John F. Kennedy was towed from NS Mayport, and taken to NS Norfolk, instead of a mothball berth at the old Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, as originally planned on 26 July 2007, arriving at Naval Station Norfolk, Va. on 31 July 2007. John F. Kennedy was formally decommissioned on 30 September 2007. John F. Kennedy was towed into the Port of Philadelphia to join other decommissioned ships at the Navy Inactive Ships Maintenance Facility 22 March 2008. U.S. aircraft carrier inventory was reduced to 11 commissioned U.S. aircraft carriers in 2007.
The Navy’s proposed FY2007 budget included decommisioning USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67). Until mid-2005, the Kennedy was homeported in Mayport, FL. “The aircraft carrier USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) was decommissioned in Mayport, Fla., March 23, 2007 and formally decommissioned on 30 September 2007” (Ref. J).
"Big John" Decommissioned After 38 Years of Service
“The aircraft carrier USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) was decommissioned in Mayport, Fla., March 23. After a 17 gun salute, USS John F. Kennedy Commanding Officer Capt. Todd Zecchin addressed the more than 5,000 guests, former commanding officers, city officials and distinguished visitors. In his speech, he described his feelings for the ship and the legacy of its crew. "While preparing for today, I realized that serving on this ship is akin to having a relationship with a tried and true friend," Zecchin said. "Saying goodbye is a sublime melancholy."
"You have served with honor and distinction," Nathman said, addressing the crew. "I commend you for facing challenges head-on and for welcoming your responsibility. Feel privileged to bear your responsibility. Wear it as a mantle on your shoulders with the pride it deserves." To recognize some of the former commanding officers of USS John F. Kennedy, Zecchin asked all who had once commanded the warship to stand. A hearty applause erupted from all of the seated guests, young and old, military personnel and civilians. The 80,000 ton warship, namesake of the 35th President of the United States, saw 18 deployments and 30 commanding officers in its 38 years of service” (Ref. J).
The U. S. Navy to Commission Aircraft Carrier George H. W. Bush
The George H. W. Bush (CVN-77), Norfolk, Va. – 65th commissioned U.S. Aircraft Carrier and the 10th and final Nimitz-class aircraft carrier. “The Navy's newest nuclear-powered aircraft carrier George H. W. Bush was commissioned Saturday, January 10, 2009, during an 11 a.m. EST ceremony at Naval Station Norfolk, Va. President George W. Bush will deliver the principal address. Dorothy Doro, Bush Koch, daughter of the ship's namesake, is the ship's sponsor. In the time-honored Navy tradition, she will give the order to "man our ship and bring her to life!"
The last Nimitz-class aircraft carrier is named to honor World War II naval aviator and America’s 41st President George H. W. Bush. Born on June 12, 1924, in Milton, Mass., Bush began a lifetime of service to America when he joined the Navy on his 18thbirthday as a seaman.
He became the youngest pilot in the Navy at the time, receiving his commission and naval aviator wings before his 19th birthday. Bush flew the Avenger torpedo bomber in combat from the carrier USS San Jacinto (CVL-30). During an attack on enemy installations near Chichi Jima in September 1944, his plane was hit by enemy fire while making a bombing run. Although the plane was on fire and heavily damaged, he completed a strafing run on the target before bailing out of the doomed aircraft. Bush parachuted into the sea and was later rescued by the Navy submarine USS Finback (SS-230). He was later awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross and three Air Medals for his Navy service in the Pacific theater during World War II.
After his time in the Navy ended in September 1945, Bush held a number of public service roles that included two terms as a U.S. congressman from Texas, ambassador to the United Nations, chief of the U.S. Liaison Office to China and director of the Central Intelligence Agency. He then served two terms as vice president under the late President Ronald Reagan before being elected himself as President of the United States in 1988.
As commander-in-chief, Bush led the United States and a coalition of nearly 30 other nations during Operation Desert Storm, which ended Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait and liberated the people of the Persian Gulf nation. Capt. Kevin O'Flaherty, from Los Angeles, Calif., and a 1981 Naval Academy graduate, will become the ship’s first commanding officer, leading a crew of more than 5,500 men and women, including embarked air wing personnel. George H. W. Bush will be initially homeported in Norfolk, Va., assigned to the U.S. Atlantic Fleet.
Construction of the tenth Nimitz-class ship took place at Northrop Grumman-Newport News, Va., starting with the ship's keel laying Sept. 6, 2003, and christening Oct. 7, 2006. George H. W. Bush towers 20 stories above the waterline, displaces approximately 95,000 tons of water, has a flight deck width of 252 feet, and at 1,092 feet long, is nearly as long as the Empire State Building is tall. This floating airfield has a flight deck that covers 4.5 acres. Bush’s two nuclear reactors are capable of more than 20 years of continuous service without refueling, providing virtually unlimited range and endurance, and a top speed in excess of 30 knots. The ship will support a wide variety of aircraft, including the F/A-18C Hornet and F/A-18E/F Super Hornet strike fighters, the E-2C/D Hawkeye Airborne Early Warning aircraft, the C-2 Greyhound logistics aircraft, the EA-6B Prowler and the EA-18G Growler electronic warfare aircraft, multi-role SH-60 and MH-60 helicopters, and other future carrier-based aircraft” (Ref. E).
USS George H. W. Bush (CVN-77) commissioned January 10, 2009, replacing USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63), while one carrier will most likely under go mid life refueling, thereby having 11 commissioned and 10 active carriers or less due to overhauls until 2013/15 when the newest Ford class CVN-21 is commissioned which will replace the USS Enterprise (CVN-65) thereby maintaining the carrier fleet to 11 commissioned and most likely less then 10 active. The days of yesterday gone, while the future illuminates the need for U.S. Aircraft Carrier presence in various regions of the world at the same in which Summer Pulse 2004 illustrated could be done. A major Theater of War (MTW) is estimated to require four or five carriers and the National Military Strategy envisions response to two MTWs simultaneously.
Navy Takes Delivery of Aircraft Carrier George H.W. Bush
“The Navy took delivery of its newest aircraft carrier, USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77), from Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding on 11 May 2009. George H.W. Bush is the 10th and final Nimitz-class aircraft carrier.
"George H.W. Bush has been eight years in the making, with its keel laid in 2003, followed by christening in 2006 and today's delivery. It's a testament to the dedication and professionalism of both the Navy and our industry partners," said Capt. Frank Simei, Navy program manager for in-service aircraft carriers.
George H.W. Bush is the most advanced ship of its class. Relative to the last aircraft carrier, USS Ronald Reagan (CVN-76), substantial design features were modified and new technologies inserted. Examples include a new vacuum marine sanitation system, a new jet fuel distribution system and numerous other new control systems and piping materials. These new features will reduce the lifecycle cost of the carrier.
Navy Decommissions USS Kitty Hawk
“The aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63) arrived at Bremerton, Washington in September and was informally retired on 31 January 2009 and decommissioned on 12 May 2009 at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility in Bremerton, Wash., after more than 48 years of service. Members of the final crew lowered the ship's commissioning pennant from the main mast and the U.S. Flag and First Navy Jack from their staffs after Kitty Hawk Commanding Officer Capt. Todd Zecchin closed out the ship's deck log. "It's hard to capture the feeling in words," said Zecchin. "This is the second aircraft carrier that I've decommissioned, and it doesn't hit you immediately until you've lowered the commissioning pennant for the last time."
Kitty Hawk's officers of the deck have used the log to track shipboard activities, both in port and at sea, since commissioning April 29, 1961. Zecchin then transferred the ship to the control of shipyard commander Capt. Mark Whitney during a small ceremony aboard the ship. "She has served her country for almost 50 years – 48 years and 13 days, across the globe," said Zecchin. "There have been a lot of Sailors that have crossed her decks, a lot of airmen that have flown off and on her decks." Kitty Hawk arrived in Bremerton Sept. 2, 2008 to prepare for its eventual decommissioning. The ship spent the previous 10 years operating from Fleet Activities Yokosuka, Japan. While operating from Japan as the Navy's only forward deployed aircraft carrier, Kitty Hawk took part in dozens of exercises and operations, including being the first aircraft carrier to take part in Operation Enduring Freedom in the Arabian Sea, and her aircraft took part in the opening strikes of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
Kitty Hawk was replaced by USS George Washington (CVN-73), which is only the fourth U.S. aircraft carrier to be forward deployed from Yokosuka. Kitty Hawk's voyage to Bremerton started when the ship left Fleet Activities Yokosuka, Japan, May 28, 2008. Since then, the ship made her final port visit to Guam, then on to Hawaii, where it took part in the 21st biennial Rim of the Pacific exercise with nine other nations. On her way to Bremerton, Kitty Hawk made a final stop at Naval Air Station North Island, Calif., where she was homeported for more than 25 years. Dozens of former crewmembers, including 38 plankowners – members of the 1961 commissioning crew – rode the ship from San Diego to Bremerton on its final at-sea voyage. The decommissioning brings back a lot of memories for the 100,000 or so Sailors who served aboard Kitty Hawk as part of ship's company or air wing.
Kitty Hawk had been the Navy's oldest active warship since 1998 and turns over the title to the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CVN-65). Kitty Hawk was also the Navy's last remaining diesel-fueled aircraft carrier. Throughout its lifetime, Kitty Hawk has had 407,507 arrested carrier landings and 448,235 catapult launches. Now decommissioned, the ship will remain in Bremerton for the foreseeable future as part of the Navy Inactive Ships Program” (Ref. 1-Kitty Hawk, 72, 76, 84A, 331 & Navy Decommissions USS Kitty Hawk - Story Number: NNS090512-08 - Release Date: 5/12/2009 5:37:00 PM - From Kitty Hawk Public Affairs, BREMERTON, Wash. (NNS)).
“The current campaign to obtain an aircraft carrier as a Pensacola museum follows a controversial campaign in the early 1990s, when a volunteer effort tried to get USS Lexington. That movement did not succeed, and Lexington now operates as a museum in Corpus Christi, Texas. With the advent of the nuclear carrier, Kitty Hawk and John F. Kennedy are the last two candidate carriers to become museum ships as they have conventional propulsion. Nuclear carriers, such as Enterprise and the Nimitz class, require extensive deconstruction to remove their nuclear reactors during decommissioning, leaving them in an unsuitable condition for donation” (Ref. KK-).
Enterprise, Nimitz-Class Carriers Won't Be Museums
“The USS Enterprise (CVN-65) will inactivate on December 1, 2012, after 51 years of legendary service. A group of Navy veterans want to preserve the USS Enterprise's history, but it appears they'll be doing it without the ship itself.
The veterans learned in March that making a museum out of the aircraft carrier, the largest in the U.S. fleet and the first to be powered by nuclear reactors, isn't an option. More recently they they learned that a more modest effort to preserve the ship's island, also wouldn't fly. And for the 10 Nimitz-class carriers in the 11-ship U.S. fleet, a future as a museum seems unlikely.
"Inactivation of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers requires removing large sections of ship structure to facilitate reactor compartment removal and disposal," Rear Adm. Thomas Moore, the Navy's program executive officer for carriers, said in a statement emailed to the Daily Press. Converting any one of the carriers, all built in Newport News, Moore wrote, would likely "cost tens of millions of dollars."
The Navy already ruled out making a museum out of the Enterprise. At 50 years old, the ship is the oldest carrier in the fleet. Its inactivation ceremony -- a retirement party for ships -- is set for Dec. 1. After that the ship will be defueled and stripped down in Newport News, and eventually towed to Puget Sound, Wash., where its eight reactors will be taken out of the ship for disposal” (Ref. 6-SH).
Ref. 8-SH - LCDR Gerald Ford, who later became the 38th President of the United States (1974–1977) in uniform, 1945. Ford received his commission as an Ensign in the U.S Naval Reserve on 13 April 1942 and later participated in many actions in the Pacific aboard the fast aircraft carrier USS Monterey (CVL-26). He was eventually released from active duty under honorable conditions in February 1946. President Ford, 93, passed away on 26 December 2006 at his home in Rancho Mirage, Calif. DOD photo (# 061227-N-0000X-003). NS027805a. Robert M. Cieri http://www.navsource.org/archives/02/027805a.jpg
Ref. 8A-SH - CVN-78 is named after Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. (1913–2006), 38th President of the United States of America (1974–1977). Gerald R. Ford, Jr. became the fourth consecutive President to have served in the US Navy. He was the first vice president in American history to succeed to the nation's highest office because of the resignation of a president, and he was the first person to occupy the White House without being elected either president or vice president. He viewed himself as "a moderate in domestic affairs, a conservative in fiscal affairs, and a dyed-in-the-wool internationalist in foreign affairs." Ford acted vigorously to maintain US power and prestige after the collapse of Cambodia and South Vietnam. Preventing a new war in the Middle East remained a major objective. Detente with the Soviet Union continued. On Inauguration Day his successor, President Carter, began his speech: "For myself and for our Nation, I want to thank my predecessor for all he has done to heal our land." NS027805. DOD File photo # 061227-D-0000X-001. http://www.navsource.org/archives/02/027805.jpg
Navy CVN-21 Aircraft Carrier Program: July 16, 2009 Summary:
“CVN-78 and CVN-79 are the first two ships in the Navy's new Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) class of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers. CVN-78 was procured in FY2008 and is scheduled to enter service in 2015. The ships procurement cost is estimated in the proposed FY2010 budget at $10,846 million in then-year dollars$389 million (about 3.7%) more than the estimate in the FY2009 budget. Although CVN-78 was procured in FY2008, it is being funded with four-year incremental funding across FY2008-FY2011. The proposed FY2010 requests $739.3 million in procurement funding to help complete the ships procurement cost. The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) reported in June 2008 that it estimates that CVN-78 will cost about $900 million more than the Navy estimates, and that if CVN-78 experienced cost growth similar to that of other lead ships that the Navy has purchased in the past 10 years, costs could be much higher still.
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) and other observers have expressed concern that difficulties in developing the CVN-78s new electromagnetic aircraft catapult (called the electromagnetic aircraft launch system, or EMALS), could delay the schedule for building the ship and increase the ships construction cost. GAO highlighted the issue in a March 2009 report to Congress. The issue was the subject of a July 16, 2009, hearing before the Seapower and Expeditionary Forces subcommittee of the House Armed Services Committee. CVN-79 was scheduled under the FY2009 budget to be procured in FY2012. Under the proposed FY2010 budget, the ships procurement would be deferred one year, to FY2013. CVN-79s procurement cost was estimated in the FY2009 budget at about $9.2 billion in then-year dollars. The ship has been receiving advance procurement (AP) funding since FY2007 (including about $1.2 billion in AP funding in FY2009).
The proposed FY2010 budget requests $484.4 million in AP funding for the ship. (The FY2009 budget had projected that about $807 million would be requested in FY2010.) Deferring CVN-79s procurement to FY2013 has almost certainly increased the ships estimated procurement cost, but the Navy has not released a new cost estimate for the ship. One potential FY2010 issue for Congress is whether to approve DODs proposal to defer CVN-79s procurement to FY2013, or instead maintain FY2012 as the ships year of procurement. A second potential FY2010 issue for Congress is whether to provide a legislative waiver permitting the Navy’s carrier force to temporarily decline from 11 ships to 10 ships during a 33-month period between 2012 (when the aging aircraft carrier Enterprise [CVN-65] is scheduled to retire) and 2015 (when CVN-78 is scheduled to enter service as its replacement).
The House and Senate Armed Services Committees, in their markups of the FY2010 defense authorization bill (H.R. 2647/S. 1390), both recommended approving the administrations FY2010 request for procurement funding for CVN-78 and advance procurement funding for CVN-79. Section 1022 of H.R. 2647 and Section 1011 of S. 1390 would authorize a waiver to 10 USC 5062(b), so as to permit the Navy’s carrier force to decline from 11 ships to 10 between the decommissioning of the Enterprise (CVN-65) and the commissioning of CVN-78.
Section 122 of H.R. 2647 would require the Secretary of the Navy to submit a report to the congressional defense committees on the effects of using a five-year interval for the construction of Ford-class aircraft carriers, and prohibit the Navy from using FY2010 research and development or advance procurement funding for CVN-79 for activities that would limit the Navy’s ability to award a construction contract for CVN-79 in FY2012 or CVN-80 in FY2016” (Ref. M2).
Navy CVN-21 Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress - Ref. H, L & N
“The Navy's Current Carrier Force as of 10 January 2009 was 12 ships including one conventionally powered carriers (the Kitty Hawk (CV-63)) for less then a month, while the USS George H. W. Bush (CVN-77) commissioned 10 January 2009 and then USS Kitty Hawk (CV-43) decommissioned 31 January 2009 in Bremerton, Washington, leaving the U. S. Navy 11 active aircraft carriers from FY2008 to FY2009” (Ref. H & N).
“The U. S. Navy’s Aircraft Carrier Industrial Base consisted of Ten Nimitz class and the one-of-a-kind USS Enterprise (CVN- 65) multirole aircraft carriers in 2009.
George H. W. Bush (CVN-77) was procured in FY2001 and entered service in 2009 as the replacement for the Kitty Hawk” (Ref. L & 1-N).
Gerald R Ford Class (CVN-78/79) – US Navy CVN-21 Future Carrier Programme, United States of America
“The US Navy's programme CVN-21 for the future-generation aircraft carrier programme was previously known as the CVN(X).
In January 2007, the US Navy announced that the new class would be called the Gerald R Ford Class.
USS Gerald R Ford (CVN-78) and USS John F Kennedy (CVN-79)
The first two ships, USS Gerald R Ford (CVN-78) and USS John F Kennedy (CVN-79), will be commissioned in 2016 and 2020 respectively, and further ships of the class will enter service at intervals of five years. A total of ten Ford-class carriers are planned with construction continuing to 2058.
The CVN-78 will replace USS Enterprise (CVN-65), which entered service in 1961 and will approach the end of its operational life by 2015. The total acquisition cost of the CVN-21 is expected to be $13.7bn.
The US Department of Defense awarded Northrop Grumman Newport News in Virginia a $107.6m contract in July 2003, a $1.39bn contract in May 2004 and $559m to prepare for the carrier construction and continue the design programme on the ship's propulsion system.
The CVN-78's first steel was cut in August 2005. A $5.1bn contract for the detailed design and construction was awarded to Newport News in September 2008. The keel was laid in November 2009.
The CVN-78 aircraft carrier was installed with four 30t bronze propellers in October 2013. Both the launch and first voyage of the ship took place in November 2013. Anchor testing aboard the carrier was completed in June 2014, while the US Navy conducted EMALS testing on CVN-78 in May 2015.
Northrop Grumman was awarded a planning and design contract for the second carrier, CVN-79, in November 2006. In May 2011, the US Navy announced that the carrier will be called John F Kennedy.
Construction of the USS John F Kennedy (CVN-79) began in February 2011 and is expected for completion in 2020.
Newport News was awarded a $407m contract extension for the preparation work on the CVN-79 ship in March 2013 and a $1.29bn contract extension in March 2014. It further received a $3.35bn contract for the ship's detailed design and construction in June 2015.
CVN-21 future aircraft carrier design
The Gerald R Ford class carriers will have the same displacement, about 100,000t, as its predecessor, the Nimitz-class George HW Bush (CVN-77), but will have between 500 and 900 fewer crew members.
The manpower reduction was a key performance parameter added to the original four outlined in 2000 in the operational requirements document for the CVN-21 programme. It is estimated that the new carrier technologies will lead to a 30% reduction in maintenance requirements and a further crew workload reduction will be achieved through higher levels of automation.
The other main differences in operational performance compared with the Nimitz-class are increased sortie rates at 160 sorties a day (compared with 140 a day), a weight and stability allowance over the 50-year operational service life of the ship, and increased (by approximately 150%) electrical power generation and distribution to sustain the ship's advanced technology systems. Another key performance requirement is interoperability.
CVN-21 aircraft carrier hull
Since the 1960s, all US Navy aircraft carriers have been built at Northrop Grumman Newport News. Northrop has extended its design and shipbuilding facilities with a new heavy plate workshop and burners, a new 5,000t thick plate press, covered assembly facilities and a new 1,050t-capacity crane.
Northrop is using a suite of computer-aided design (CAD) tools for the CVN-21 programme, including a CATIA software suite for simulation of the production processes and a CAVE virtual environment package.
The hull design is similar to that of the current Nimitz Class carriers and with the same number of decks. The island is smaller and moved further towards the aft of the ship.
The island has a composite mast with planar array radars, a volume search radar operating at S band and a multifunction radar at X band, and also carries the stern-facing joint precision approach and landing system (JPALS), which is based on local area differential global positioning system (GPS), rather than radar.
The aircraft carrier traditionally carries the flag officer and 70 staff of the carrier battle group. The flag bridge, which was previously accommodated in the carrier's island, was relocated to a lower deck in order to minimize the size of the island.
The ship's internal configuration and flight deck designs have significantly changed. The lower decks incorporate a flexible rapidly reconfigurable layout allowing different layouts and installation of new equipment in command, planning and administration areas.
The requirement to build in a weight and stability allowance will accommodate the added weight of new systems that will be installed over the 50-year operational life of the ship. The removal of one aircraft elevator unit and reducing the number of hangar bays from three to two have contributed to a weight reduction of the CVN-21.
The carrier will be armed with the Raytheon evolved Sea Sparrow missile (ESSM), which defends against high-speed, highly maneuverable anti-ship missiles. The close-in weapon system is the rolling airframe missile (RAM) from Raytheon and Ramsys GmbH.
Gerald Ford Class carrier aircraft
The carrier will be capable of carrying up to 90 aircraft, including the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, F / A-18E / F Super Hornet, E-2D Advanced Hawkeye, EA-18G Growler electronic attack aircraft, MH-60R / S helicopters and unmanned air vehicles and unmanned combat air vehicles.
The requirement for a higher sortie rate at 160 sorties a day with surges to a maximum of 220 sorties a day in times of crisis and intense air warfare activity, has led to design changes in the flight deck.
The flight deck has a relocated and smaller island, and there are three rather than four deck-edge elevators. Deck extensions also increase the aircraft parking areas. The aircraft service stations are located near the 18 refuelling and rearming stops.
General Atomics was awarded the contract to develop the EMALS electromagnetic aircraft launch system, which uses a linear electromagnetic accelerator motor. EMALS demonstrators were tested at the Naval Air Systems Command (NASC) Lakehurst test centre in New Jersey. It is planned that EMALS will replace the current C-13 steam catapults.
If successful, EMALS technology offers the potential benefit of finer aircraft acceleration control, which leads to lower stresses in the aircraft and pilots and provides a slower launch speed for unmanned air vehicles and allows a wider window of wind-over-deck speed required for the launch sequence.
The contract for the development of an advanced turbo-electric arrestor gear has been awarded to General Atomics. The electro-magnetic motor applies control to the synthetic arrestor cable to reduce the maximum tensions in the cable and reduce the peak load on the arrestor hook and on the aircraft fuselage.
Aircraft weapons loading
The flow of weapons to the aircraft stops on the flight deck was upgraded to accommodate the higher sortie rates. The ship carries stores of missiles and cannon rounds for fighter aircraft, bombs and air-to-surface missiles for strike aircraft, and torpedoes and depth charges for anti-submarine warfare aircraft.
Weapons elevators take the weapons systems from the magazines to the weapons handling and weapons assembly areas on the 02-level deck (below the flight deck) and express weapons elevators are installed between the handling and assembly areas and the flight deck. The two companies selected by Northrop Grumman to generate designs for the advanced weapons elevator are the Federal Equipment Company and Oldenburg Lakeshore Inc.
The deployment of all-up-rounds, which are larger, rather than traditional weapons requiring assembly will require double-height magazines and store rooms and will also impact on the level of need for weapons assembly facilities.
The US Navy outlined a requirement for a minimum 150% increase in the power-generation capacity for the CVN-21 carrier compared with the Nimitz Class carriers. The increased power capacity is needed for the four electro-magnetic aircraft launchers and for future systems such as directed energy weapons that might be feasible during the carrier's 50-year lifespan.
Raytheon was contracted in October 2008 to supply a version of the dual-band radar (DBR) developed for the Zumwalt Class destroyer for installation on the Gerald R Ford. DBR combines X-band and S-band phased arrays.
Northrop Grumman is developing the advanced nuclear propulsion system and a zonal electrical power distribution system for the CVN-21” (Ref. P). http://www.naval-technology.com/projects/cvn-21
Service members, crew, their families and distinguished guests bow their heads as Navy CAPT Jerome Hinson gives a benediction during the ship's christening ceremony. The Ford class brings improved war fighting capacity, quality of life improvements and reduced acquisition and life cycle costs. Newport News, Va., 9 November 2013. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Patrick Grieco (# 131109-N-VT117-043). NS027821i. Submitted by: Robert M. Cieri.
Tens of thousands of Navy supporters attend the christening ceremony of the aircraft carrier Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) at Newport News Shipbuilding, Newport News, Va., 9 November 2013. The first in the Ford-class carriers, CVN-78 is scheduled to join the fleet in 2016. U.S. Navy photo by Chief Mass Communication Specialist Peter D. Lawlor (# 131109-N-WL435-370). NS027821j. Submitted by: Robert M. Cieri. http://www.navsource.org/archives/02/027821j.jpg
Builder's original logo. NS027822b. Submitted by: Ron Reeves and Howard Weitzell.
Ship's crest and motto, "Integrity at the Helm." NS027822. Submitted by: Ron Reeves & Wolfgang Hechler.
Ship's patch. NS027822a. Submitted by: Howard Weitzell.
Operational and Building Data
Advance construction of the CVN-21 project began on August 11, 2005 with the beveling of a 15-ton metal plate at Northrop Grumman Newport News' shipyards in Virginia. This metal plate was used in the construction of CVN-78. Advance construction took an estimated two years before construction began on the actual ship herself. This gave technicians and engineers the time needed to test and design the ship, and all the new technologies placed into the vessel. The keel of the first unit (CVN-78) was laid on 14 November 2009 and delivery to the Navy is scheduled for 2015, to replace USS Enterprise (CVN-65), inactivated in 2012 after 51 years of service. CVN-78 was officially named Gerald R. Ford, after the nation's 38th President, on 16 January 2007. On 10 September 2008 Northrop Grumman Corporation received a $5.1-billion, 7-year cost plus incentive fee contract award for detail design and construction of CVN-78. Second unit (CVN-79) is scheduled to start construction in FY2012 and slated to be placed in commission in FY2019. CVN-79 would feature several improvements over CVN-78. Third and final (?) unit (CVN-80), would be procured "a few years after" CVN-79 (estimated delivery in FY2023). Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus announced, 1 December 2012, that she will be named Enterprise.
“Records indicate USS Tarawa (CV-40) made the first Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf voyage via the navy’s second Red Sea, Gulf of Aden voyage and second Suez Canal transit made by a carrier, following operations in South China Sea via straits of Malacca, upon completion of operations in the Yellow Sea operating with the Pacific Fleet and 7th Fleet, on her World Cruise and transfer to Norfolk, Va. from San Diego, Ca., on her first Mediterranean Sea voyage operating with the 6th Fleet, traveling through the North Atlantic, reuniting with her former home port, and operating with the U.S. Atlantic Command (Atlantic Fleet) under the direction of the 8th Fleet, her third deployment since her commission 8 December 1946” (Ref. 1-Tarawa and 72).
“USS Valley Forge (CV-45) with Air Group 11 (CVAG-11) embarked, flying the flag of Rear Admiral Harold L. Martin, Commander of Task Force 38 departed San Diego, California 8 October 1947, on her first “Westpac” deployment, her first South China Sea and first Coral Sea and Tasman Sea voyage operating with the 7th Fleet and what would turn out to be her first World Cruise, on her first Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf voyage via the navy’s first Red Sea, Gulf of Aden voyage and first Suez Canal transit, her first Mediterranean Sea voyage operating with the 6th Fleet and North Atlantic voyage, traveling South through the Atlantic to the Caribbean Sea on her third reported voyage, her first as a deployment and second Panama Canal transit operating with the United States Atlantic Command (Atlantic Fleet) under the direction of the 8th Fleet;” (Ref. 1-Valley Forge & 72).
Ref. A - Not Active http://www.nn.northropgrumman.com/capabilities/rco.html
Ref. B - Not Active http://www.sb.northropgrumman.com/products/acfleetservices/index.html
Ref. C - Lieutenant Junior Grade George Bush, USNR DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY - NAVAL HISTORICAL CENTER, 805 KIDDER BREESE SE - wASHINGTON NAVY YARD, WASHINGTON DC 20374-5060
Not Active http://www.nn.northropgrumman.com/bush or http://www.nn.northropgrumman.com/bush/christening.html
Ref. D - The Navy's newest nuclear-powered aircraft carrier George H. W. Bush was commissioned Saturday, January 10, 2009, during an 11 a.m. EST ceremony at Naval Station Norfolk, Va. Not Active http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq10-1.htm
Ref. E - Not Active http://www.defenselink.mil/releases/release.aspx?releaseid=12418
Ref. F - Navy Takes Delivery of USS George H.W. Bush (CVN 77), from Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding May 11. George H.W. Bush is the 10th and final Nimitz-class aircraft carrier” (Ref. Story Number: NAE090511-01 - Release Date: 2009-05-11T14:29:21 - By Naval Sea Systems Command Office of Corporate Communications, WASHINGTON (NNS)).
Ref. G - Navy Takes Delivery of Aircraft Carrier George H.W. Bush - Story Number: NNS090511-11 - Release Date: 5/11/2009 3:45:00 PM - From Naval Sea Systems Command Office of Corporate Communications, WASHINGTON (NNS)
Ref. H - Not Active http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/navy/batgru-78.htm
Navy Names Newest Carrier After President Ford - WASHINGTON, Jan. 16, 2007 – With flags around the nation still at half staff in memory of the late President Gerald R. Ford, Vice President Richard B. Cheney called today’s naming of the Navy’s newest aircraft carrier in Ford’s honor an even more fitting tribute because it looks to the future” (Ref. By Donna Miles, American Forces Press Service & Story Number: NNS070116-08 - Release Date: 1/16/2007 4:01:00 PM - From the Department of Defense, WASHINGTON (NNS)
Ref. I - Aircraft Carriers - CV, CVN - Defense Industry Daily, LLC in association with Watershed Publishing. Not Active http://www.defenselink.mil/News/NewsArticle.aspx?ID=2710
Ref. J – “Big John” Decommissioned After 38 Years of Service - Story Number: NNS070324-04 - Release Date: 3/24/2007 1:28:00 PM - By Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Bill Larned, USS John F. Kennedy Public Affairs, MAYPORT, Fla. (NNS) http://www.navy.mil/submit/display.asp?story_id=28500
Ref. K - Not Active http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com
Ref. L - Navy CVN-21 Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress - Order Code RS20643 - Updated June 24, 2005 - CRS Report for Congress - Received through the CRS Web - Ronald O’Rourke, Specialist in National Defense, Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division
Ref. L - Navy CVN-21 Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress
August 20, 2004 Summary Not Active http://www.ndu.edu/library/docs/crs/crs_rs20643_24jun05.pdf
Ref. M - Not Active http://opencrs.com/about
Ref. M1 - July 16, 2009 Summary: Not Active http://opencrs.com/document/RS20643/2004-08-20
Ref. M2 - Open CRS. Not Active http://opencrs.com/document/RS20643/2009-07-16
American taxpayers spend nearly $100 million a year to fund the Congressional Research Service, a "think tank" that provides reports to members of Congress on a variety of topics relevant to current political events. Yet, these reports are not made available to the public in a way that they can be easily obtained. A project of the Center for Democracy & Technology, Open CRS provides citizens’ access to CRS Reports that are already in the public domain and encourages Congress to provide public access to all CRS Reports.
CRS Reports do not become public until a member of Congress releases the report. A number of libraries and non-profit organizations have sought to collect as many of the released reports as possible. Open CRS is a centralized utility that brings together these collections to search.
Unfortunately, there is no systematic way to obtain all CRS reports. Because of this, not all reports appear on the Open CRS web site. CDT believes that it would be far preferable for Congress to make available to the public all CRS Reports.
Ref. N - DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY - NAVAL HISTORICAL CENTER
805 KIDDER BREESE SE - WASHINGTON NAVY YARD - WASHINGTON DC 20374-5060 Not Active http://www.navy.mil/navydata/fact_display.asp?cid=4200&tid=200&ct=4
P. Gerald R Ford Class (CVN-78/79) – US Navy CVN-21 Future Carrier Programme, United States of America http://www.naval-technology.com/projects/cvn-21
1. For discussion of this issue, see CRS Report RL32731, Navy Aircraft Carriers: Proposed Retirement of USS John F. Kennedy -- Issues and Options for Congress, by Ronald O'Rourke.
2. For discussion of this issue, see CRS Report RL32776, Navy Ship Procurement: Alternative Funding Approaches -- Background and Options for Congress, by Ronald O'Rourke.
3. For more on naval transformation, see CRS Report RS20851, Naval Transformation, Background and Issues for Congress, by Ronald O'Rourke.
4. The Navy reportedly wanted to start funding the procurement of CVNX-1/CVN-21 through the Navy's research and development account in part because the new technologies to be incorporated into CVNX-1/CVN-21 give it somewhat the character of a research and development activity as opposed to a straight procurement action. The Navy reportedly believed that funding procurement of the ship through the research and development account would permit the Navy to better manage the technical and cost risks involved in developing and building the ship.
Items acquired through research and development accounts are not subject to the full funding policy as traditionally applied to DOD weapon procurement programs. If procured through the research and development account, the Navy would be able, for example, to fund the procurement of CVN-21 using a stream of annual funding increments -- a funding strategy that, when used in funding items procured through DOD procurement accounts, is called incremental funding. Such a strategy would reduce the financial strain that procurement of CVN-21 would place on the Navy budget in any single year.
Congress, however, imposed the full funding policy on DOD in the 1950s in part to end the use of incremental funding in defense procurement, because it was viewed as having disadvantages in terms of reducing DOD budgeting discipline and making the total costs of weapons less visible. For a discussion, see CRS Report RL31404, Defense Procurement: Full Funding Policy -- Background, Issues, and Options for Congress, by Ronald O'Rourke and Stephen Daggett.
5. For more on the DD(X) and LHA(R) programs, see CRS Report RS21059, Navy DD(X) Destroyer Program: Background and Issues for Congress, by Ronald O'Rourke, CRS Report RL32109, Navy DD(X) and LCS Ship Acquisition Programs: Oversight Issues and Options for Congress, by Ronald O'Rourke, and CRS Report RL32513, Navy-Marine Corps Amphibious and Maritime Prepositioning Ship Programs: Background and Oversight Issues for Congress, by Ronald O'Rourke.
6. For more discussion, see CRS Report RL32776, op. cit.
7. For more on the OFT report, including these two proposed carriers, see CRS Report RL32814, Navy Force Architecture and Ship Acquisition: Selected FY2006 Issues for Congress, by Ronald O'Rourke.
8. For more discussion, see CRS Report RL32731, op cit.
9. For legislative activity relating to the issue of the size of the carrier force, see CRS Report RL32731, op cit.
10. For additional discussion of incremental funding in the procurement of Navy ships, see CRS Report RL32914, Navy Ship Acquisition: Options for Lower-Cost Ship Design -- Issues for Congress, by Ronald O'Rourke, and CRS Report RL31404, op cit.
U. S. AIRCRAFT CARRIER EVOLUTION
Part I of II (1920 to 2012)
Part II of II (2013 to Present)