U. S. AIRCRAFT CARRIER EVOLUTION

Part I of II (1920 to 2012)

 USS CORAL SEA (CV 43)

Operations Evening Light and Eagle Claw, A Sailors tale of his Tour of duty in the U.S. Navy (August 1977 to February 1983)

 

A Sailors tale of his Tour of duty in the U.S. Navy - Operation Evening Light And Eagle Claw -

 

Book - ISBN NO.

978-1-4276-0454-5

EBook - ISBN NO.

978-1-329-15473-5

 

Operations Evening Light and Eagle Claw (24 April 1980) Iran and Air Arm History (1941 to Present)

 

Operations Evening Light and Eagle Claw (24 April 1980) Iran and Air Arm History (1941 to Present)

 

Book ISBN NO.

xxxxxxxxxxxxx

EBook ISBN NO.

978-1-329-19945-3

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA  Vol. I (10 July 1944 to 31 December 1975)

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA Vol. I (10 July 1944 to 31 December 1975) -

 

Book ISBN NO.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

EBook ISBN NO.

978-1-329-54596-0

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. II (1 January 1976 to 25 August 1981)

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. II (1 January 1976 to 25 August 1981) -

 

Book ISBN NO.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

EBook ISBN NO.

978-1-329-54790-2

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. III (20 August 1981 to 26 April 1990)

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. III (20 August 1981 to 26 April 1990) -

 

Book ISBN NO.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

EBook ISBN NO.

978-1-329-55111-4

 

U. S. AIRCRAFT CARRIER SHIP HISTORY (1920 to 2016)

 

U. S. AIRCRAFT

CARRIER SHIP

HISTORY (1920 to 2016)

 

Book - ISBN NO.

978-1-4276-0465-1

EBook - ISBN NO.

978-1-365-25019-4

Library of Congress

Control Number: 

2008901616

(Book Version)

 

U. S. AIRCRAFT CARRIERS REDESIGNATED AND OR RECLASSIFIED (1953 to 2016)

 

U. S. AIRCRAFT

CARRIERS

REDESIGNATED

AND OR

RECLASSIFIED

(1953 to 2016)

 

BOOK - ISBN NO.

978-1-4276-0452-1

EBook - ISBN NO.

978-1-365-25041-5

Library of Congress

(Book Version)

2008901619

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

U. S. AIRCRAFT CARRIER EVOLUTION

Part I of II (1920 to 2012)

Part II of II (2013 to Present)

 

 

Eight aircraft carriers were built before World War II started:  Langley AV-3, former, CV-1 & Jupiter (AC-3); Lexington (CV-2), former CC 1; Saratoga (CV-3), former Battle Cruiser #3; Ranger (CV-4); Yorktown (CV-5); Enterprise (CV-6); Wasp (CV-7) and Hornet (CV-8).

 

“The scrapping of the treaty system in 1937 allowed the U.S. to begin building more carriers. Prior to World War II, the Navy built Yorktown-class carriers to the largest tonnage (25,000 tons) that the treaties of the time allowed. The ships resulting were large, flexible and powerful, giving the U.S. Navy a five-ship carrier force totaling 134,000 tons in 1939, which with the addition of the 20,000 ton USS Wasp (CV-7) brought the U.S. Navy up to the full treaty limit in tonnage in 1940. Langley (AV-3), former, CV-1 & Jupiter (AC-3) was reclassified a Sea Tender and its tonnage was not counted as the carrier tonnage past 1937.

 

Yorktown and Enterprise were quickly completed after the lessons learned from operations with the large battle cruiser conversion Lexington class, versus the smaller. When the Naval Expansion Act of Congress passed on 17 May 1938, an increase of 40,000 tons in aircraft carriers was authorized. This permitted the building of USS Hornet (CV-8) laid down in 1939 and USS Essex (CV-9) laid down in April 1941, which was to become the lead ship of its class; the Essex class carrier, although this classification was latter dropped in the '50’s. Improvements to the Yorktown design brought about the Essex (CV-9) class” (Ref. 688).

 

More than a month before Japanese planes attacked Pearl Harbor, U-562 torpedoed the destroyer USS Reuben James (DD-245), sinking her with a heavy loss of life-the first loss of an American warship in World War II.

 

At the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor (December 7, 1941), three operational carriers were stationed in the Pacific: USS Enterprise (CV-6), USS Lexington (CV-2), and USS Saratoga (CV-3). (USS Langley AV-3 was also in the Pacific but in October 1936 it had been converted from an operational carrier to a seaplane tender.) USS Ranger (CV-4), USS Wasp (CV-7), and the recently commissioned USS Hornet (CV-8) remained in the Atlantic.

 

USS Yorktown (CV-5) and USS Hornet (CV-8) were transferred to the Pacific in December 1941 and March 1942. USS Wasp (CV-7) entered the Pacific in June 1942. USS Ranger (CV-4) was dispatched to the Pacific after a overhaul in July 1944” (Ref. 607).

 

Iowa class battleships; Baltimore-class heavy cruisers; Fletcher-class destroyers and starting in December 1942, the Essex class and Independence class carriers started to enter service.

 

The Independence class light carriers were a result of President Franklin D. Roosevelt interest in Navy shipbuilding plans. In August 1941, with war clearly in prospect, he noted that no new fleet aircraft carriers were expected before 1944. The December 1941 Pearl Harbor disaster demonstrated the urgent need to have more carriers as soon as possible and the President proposed to quickly convert some of the many cruisers then building. Studies of cruiser-size aircraft carriers had shown their serious limitations.

Navy responded by greatly accelerating construction of the big Essex class aircraft carriers and, in January 1942, reordering a Cleveland class light cruiser as an aircraft carrier. Plans developed for this conversion showed much more promise than expected and two more light cruisers were reordered as carriers in February, three in March and a final three in June 1942. Completed in January-December 1943, simultaneously with the first eight Essex’s, the nine Independence class ships were vital components of the great offensive that tore through the central and western Pacific from November 1943 through August 1945.

 

Eight of them participated in the June 1944 Battle of the Philippine Sea (Battle of the Philippine Sea which effectively eliminated Japan’s carrier air power, supplying 40 percent of the fighters and 36 percent of the torpedo bombers).

 

The Independence class design featured a relatively short and narrow flight deck and hangar, with a small island. To compensate for this additional topside weight, the cruiser hulls were widened amidships by five feet. The typical air group, originally intended to include nine each of fighters, scout-bombers and torpedo planes, was soon reoriented to number about two dozen fighters and nine torpedo planes.

 

These were limited-capability ships, whose principal virtue was near-term availability. Their small size made for sea keeping problems and a relatively high aircraft accident rate. Protection was modest and many munitions had to be stowed at the hangar level, a factor that contributed greatly to the loss of Princeton in October 1944.

 

Independence class small aircraft carriers, (CVL 22-30)

Fiscal Years 1941 (#s 22 – 26), 1942 (#s 27-30)

 

After WW II erupted and until it’s successful conclusion by Allied forces, the U.S. Navy ordered 32 aircraft carriers of the Essex and the related Ticonderoga class, of which the keels of 26 were laid down, with twenty-four actually entering service between 1942 and 1950. CV-35 and CV-46 were cancelled while under construction and nine others before their keels had been laid down.

                                                              

The Second Reprisal (CV-35) of the United States Navy would have been a Ticonderoga-class fleet carrier. Her keel was laid down on July 1, 1944, at the New York Naval Shipyard, of New York, New York. On August 12, 1945, when Reprisal was about half complete, construction was cancelled.  In 1946, the hulk was launched without ceremony to clear the slipway, and was used in Chesapeake Bay for various experiments, culminating on April 1, 1948, in explosives tests. Although inspected during January 1949 with a view to completing her as an attack carrier, the plan was dropped and Reprisal was sold on August 2, 1949, to the Boston Metals Corporation of Baltimore, Maryland, and, in November 1949, broken up.  Despite this fact, USS Reprisal (CV-35) appeared as if in service in 1997 on the television show JAG. Her part was played by USS Forrestal (CV-59).

 

CV 44 - cancelled January 11, 1943

Iwo Jima (CV-46), a Ticonderoga-class aircraft carrier, was under construction by Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co., Newport News, Va., but was canceled 12 August 1945. Her partially completed hull was scrapped.

CV-50 - Bethlehem Steel Company – cancelled

CVs 54 and 55 - Norfolk Navy Yard – cancelled

CVs 51 & 52 - New York Navy Yard – cancelled

CVB-56 - cancelled March 28, 1945

CV-53 - Philadelphia Navy Yard – cancelled

 

 

Essex Class (CV-9) was to be the prototype of the 27,000-ton (standard displacement) aircraft carrier commissioned 31 December 1942, considerably larger than the Enterprise (CV-6) yet smaller than the Saratoga (CV-3). On 9 September 1940, eight Essex class ships were ordered (CV-12 to 19) and Bennington (CV-20) and Boxer (CV-21) were ordered on 15 December 1941. CV-14 & 15, 19 and 21 were ordered as Essex-class and modified during design and construction and became those of the directly-related Ticonderoga or "long hull" class carriers and 11 commissioned as Essex Class carriers” (Ref. 688):

 

Essex Class (CV-9-13, 16-18 20, 31 & 34)

Fiscal Years 1941 (#s 9-18), 1942 (# 20 & #21) and 1943 (#31 & #34)

 

 

Drawing created by un official navy web site

 

Lexington (CV-16) commissioned on 17 February 1943; originally to be laid down as the "Cabot" but was renamed "Lexington" during construction after the Lexington (CV-2) was lost in the Battle of the Coral Sea in May 1942. Yorktown (CV-10) commissioned on 15 April 1943; originally to be named the "Bon Home Richard", but changed after the Yorktown (CV-5) was lost at the Battle of Midway 7 June 1942.

 

Bunker Hill (CV-17) commissioned on 25 May 1943. Intrepid (CV-11) commissioned on 16 August 1943. Wasp (CV-18) commissioned on 24 November 1943; name changed from "Oriskany" after the Wasp (CV-7) was sunk in September 1942 in the South Pacific while escorting a troop convoy to Guadalcanal.

 

Hornet (CV-12) commissioned on 29 November 1943; name changed from "Kearsarge" when the Hornet (CV-8) was lost in October 1942 in the Battle of Santa Cruz Islands on November 29 that year. Franklin (CV-13) was commissioned on 31 January 1944. Bennington (CV-20) was commissioned on 6 August 1944.

 

Nineteen more Essex class ships were ordered or scheduled, starting with ten of them on 7 August 1942. Though only two of the ships, the Bon Homme Richard (CV-31) commissioned on 26 November 1944; and the Oriskany (CV-34) commissioned on 25 September 1950 where laid down as Essex "short hull" keels. The remainder became the Ticonderoga or "long hull" class ships.

 

Ticonderoga-class aircraft carriers often are classified as Essex class vessels and their development was intertwined with the Essex class and the Oriskany (CV-34), a highly modified sister-ship that was the prototype of the SCB-27 modernization program, constituted the industrial age's largest class of heavy warship” (Ref. 688). 

 

Ticonderoga Class (CV-14-15, 19, 21, 32 & 33, 36-40, 45 & 47) "long hull”

Fiscal Years 1941 (#s 14-15, 19 & 21), 1942 (# 21), 1943 (#s 32 & 33, 36-40) and 1944 (#s 45-47).

 

CV-34 was ordered and laid down as an Essex-class vessel, and was completed in 1950 to the much modified SCB-27A design and could be considered to be Ticonderoga-class.

 

Lead Ship (Ticonderoga (CV-14): Number of Ships: 21 ordered, 15 laid down, 13 commissioned

 

Displacement: 27,200 ton (ton: A United States unit of weight equivalent to 2000 pounds) s/ 34,880 tons (standard)

Length: 888 ft (271 m)

Beam: 93 ft (28.3 m)

Height: 147 ft (45 m)

Draft: 23 ft (7.0 m)

Speed: 33 knots

Range: 15,000 nautical miles (28,000 km) at 15 knots (28 km/h)

Patrol Endurance: 75 days

Complement: '340 Officers/ 2900 Enlisted

Propulsion: Westinghouse geared turbines (turbines: Rotary engine in which the kinetic energy of a moving fluid is converted into mechanical energy by causing a bladed rotor to rotate); 8 - Babcock & Wilcox boilers (boilers: Sealed vessel where water is converted to steam) connected to four shafts

 

From 1941 to 1945, 24 CVs, three CVBs and 11 CVLs were constructed, and with the exception of CVB-43 and CV-33 still under construction as of 1945, were all launched by years end 1945. From 1941 to 1945 the following classes of Aircraft Carriers were built:

 

From 1941 to 1945, 24 CVs, three CVBs and 11 CVLs were constructed, and with the exception of CVB-43 and CV-33 still under construction as of 1945, were all launched by years end 1945. From 1941 to 1945 the following classes of Aircraft Carriers were built:

 

Essex Class (CV 9-13, 16-18, 20 & 31)

Fiscal Years 1941 (#s 9-18), 1942 (# 20) and 1943 (# 31)

Independence class small aircraft carriers (CVL 22-30)

Fiscal Years 1941 (#s 22 – 26), 1942 (#s 27-30)

Ticonderoga Class (CV 14-15, 19, 21, 32-33, 38-40, 45 & 47)

Fiscal Years 1941 (#s 14-19), 1942 (# 21), 1943 (#s 32-40) and 1944 (#s 45-47)

 

From 1941 to 1945, 21 CVs, 2 CVBs and 9 CVLs were commissioned while CVLs were commissioned as Independence class small aircraft carriers (CVL 22-30). 7 of the 11 CVLs were either redesignated or reclassified from CVs prior to or after commission, while Langley (CVL-27); Bataan (CVL-29) and two Saipan Class CVLs, Saipan (CVL-48) commissioned 14 July 1946 and Wright (CVL-49) commissioned on 9 February 1947 were laid down as CVLs.

 

Saipan Class (CVL 48 & 49)

Fiscal Years 1944 (#s 48 & 49)

 

Iwo Jima (CV-46), a Ticonderoga-class aircraft carrier, was under construction by Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co., Newport News, Va., but was canceled 12 August 1945. Her partially completed hull was scrapped.

 

During World War II, twenty-one U.S. Navy fleet carriers (CVs), Langley (AV-3), former, CV-1 & Jupiter (AC-3) and nine Light aircraft carriers (CVLs) conducted operations and fourteen Carriers and one CVL served after the War (included in the count of 21 and noted with a *), earning 208 Battle Stars.

 

Carriers include the first eight built before World War II:

 

Carriers that served during War II in addition to the eight Carriers at the beginning of the War and nine Light aircraft carriers (CVLs):

 

U. S. AIRCRAFT CARRIER WORLD WAR II BATTLE STARS

 

NO.

CC

CARRIER

World War II Service

Battle Stars

1

First Langley AV-3, former, CV-1 & Jupiter (AC-3)

1 Jan to 27 Feb 1942

.

2

Fourth Lexington (CV-2), former CC 1

7 Dec 1941 to 8 May 1942

2

3

Fifth Saratoga (CV-3), former Battle Cruiser #3

21 Dec to 1941 to 9 Sep 1945

7

4

Sixth Ranger (CV-4)

7 Feb 1943 to Sep 1945

2

5

Third Yorktown (CV-5)

16 Dec 1941 to 7 June 1942

3

6

Seventh Enterprise (CV-6)

6 Dec 1941 to 7 Jun 1945

20

(PUC )

(NUC)

7

Eighth Wasp (CV-7)

6 Dec 1941 to 24 Aug 1942

2

8

Seventh Hornet (CV-8)

2 Feb 1942 to 27 Oct 1942

4

Torpedo Squadron 8 (PUC)

9

Seventh Essex (CVS-9), former CVA-9 & CV-9

in May 1943 to  Sep 1945

13

(PUC)

10

Fourth Yorktown (CVS-10), former CVA-10, CV-10 & Bon Homme Richard

6 Jul 1943 to 1 Oct 1945

11

(PUC)

11

Fourth Intrepid (CVS-11), former CVA-11 & CV-11

3 Dec 1943 to 2 Dec 1945

5

12

Eighth Hornet (CVS-12), former CVA-12, CV-12 & Kearsarge

14 Feb 1944 to 7 Jul 1946

7

(PUC)

13

Fifth Franklin (AVT-8), former CV-13

Feb 1944 to 28 Nov 1945

4

14

Fourth Ticonderoga (CVS-14), former CVA-14, CV-14 & Hancock

26 Jun 1944 to 6 Dec 1945

5

(3 NUC)

(MUC)

15

Second Randolph (CVS-15), former CVA-15 & CV-15

early Dec 1944 to late 15 Aug 1945

3

16

Fifth Lexington (AVT-16), former CVT-16, CVS-16, CVA-16, CV-16 & Cabot

early Aug 1943 to 3 Dec 1945

11

17

Bunker Hill (AVT-9), former CVS-17, CVA-17 & CV-17

Sep 1943 to 11 May 1945

11

PUC)

18

Ninth Wasp (CVS-18), former CVA-18, CV-18 & Oriskany

31 Jan 1944 to 27 Oct 1945

8

(6 NUC)

19

Hancock (CV-19), former, CVA, CV-19 & fourth Ticonderoga

31 Jul 1944 to 21 Oct 1945

4

(NUC)

20

Bennington (CVS-20), former CVA-20 & CV-20

15 Dec 1944 to 7 Nov 1945

2

21

Fifth Boxer (LPH-4), former CVS-21, CVA-21 & CV-21

.

.

22

Fourth Independence (CVL-22), former CV-22 & light cruiser Amsterdam, CL-59

Jun 1943 to 31 Oct 1945

8

23

Fourth Princeton (CVL-23), former CV-23 & Tallahassee (CL-61)

Jul 1943 to 22 Oct 1944

9

24

Belleau Wood (CVL-24), former CV-24 & New Haven (CL-76)

Jul 1943 to Nov 1944

12

(PUC)

25

Cowpens (AVT-1), former CVL-25 & CV-25

29 Aug 1943 to Nov 1945

12

(NUC)

26

Monterey (AVT 2), former CVL-26, CV-26 & Dayton (CL-78)

Oct 1943 to 17 Oct 1945

11

27

Second Langley (CVL-27), former CV-27, Fargo (CL-85) & Crown Point (CV-27)

6 Dec 1943 to 15 Nov 1945

9

28

Second Cabot (AVT-3), former CVL-28, CV-28 &Wilmington (CL-79)

8 Nov 1943 to 9 Nov 1945

9

(PUC)

29

Bataan (CVL-29), former CV-29 & Buffalo (CL-99)

21 Apr 1944 to 17 Oct 1945

6

30

Second San Jacinto (AVT-5), former CVL-30, CV-30, Reprisal & light cruiser Newark  (CL-100)

Dec 1943 to 14 Sep 1945

5

(PUC)

31

Second Bon Homme Richard (CV-31), former CVA-31 & CV-31

19 Mar 1945 to 20 Oct 1945

1

38

Shangri-la (CVS-38), former CVA-38 & CV-38

early Sept 1944 to 21 Oct 1945

2

 

TOTAL

 

208

CVLs/CVs: 208 + CVEs: 205 = 413 Carrier Battle Stars

 

WORLD WAR II HISTORY (Sank due to Enemy Action, Sank by the U. S. Navy, World War II  CV & CVL and World War II Battle Stars:

 

Sank due to Enemy Action

Sank by the U. S. Navy

World War II  CV & CVL

World War II Battle Stars

 

1-AV

4-CV

1-CVL

1-CV

1-CVL

22 + 9

CVLS/CVs: 208

CVEs: 205

6

2

31

413

 

During World War II, four CVs (the fourth Lexington (CV-2), former CC 1; the third Yorktown (CV-5); the eighth Wasp (CV-7) and the seventh Hornet (CV-8), one CVL (the fourth Princeton (CVL-23), former CV-23 & Tallahassee (CL-61) and Langley (AV-3), former, CV-1 & Jupiter (AC-3) were sunk by enemy action.

 

CV’s, CVL and AV-3 SUNK DURING 1942 to 1945

 

AIRCRAFT CARRIER

COMM

*SANK

Struck from the Naval Vessel Register (Navy List)

Langley (AV-3), former, CV-1 & Jupiter (AC-3)

Converted to CV-1 - 24/03/20 to 20/03/22

Renamed Langley

07/04/13

Resd. 11/04/37

27/02/42

After 27/02/42

fourth Lexington (CV-2), former CC 1

14/12/27

8/5/42

After 8/5/42

third Yorktown (CV-5)

30/11/37

07/06/42

07/06/42

eighth Wasp (CV-7)

25/04/40

16/09/42

16/09/42

seventh Hornet (CV-8)

20/10/41

12/10/42

13/01/43

fourth Princeton (CVL-23), former CV-23 & Tallahassee (CL-61)

25/02/43

20/10/44

Some time after 20 October 1944

 

The fifth Saratoga (CV-3) was sank by the U.S. Navy during the atomic bomb tests during Operation Crossroads at Kwajalein, Bikini Atoll Marshallese, part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI); and the fourth Independence (CVL-22), former CV & light cruiser Amsterdam, CL-59 survived after two separate atomic bomb tests, the highly radioactive hulk taken to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii and San Francisco, Calif. for further test.

 

Japanese Fast Carriers in World War II

 

AIRCRAFT CARRIER

Sunk

Shinano (CVB) 62,000 tons 27 knots (Converted from a Yamato-class battleship.)

In 1944 while on shakedown trials by a U.S. submarine

Akagi (CV), 36,500 tons (Converted from battle cruisers and similar to the Lexington and Saratoga).

At Midway by carrier planes

Kaga (CV), 38,200 tons, 31 knots (Converted from battle cruisers and similar to the Lexington and Saratoga).

At Midway by carrier planes

Shokaku (CV) 25,675 tons, 34 knots (Similar to our Essex-type carriers)

By a U.S. submarine

Zuikaku (CV) 25,675 tons, 34 knots (Similar to our Essex-type carriers)

By carrier planes N.E. of Luzon

Taiho (CV) 29,300 tons, 33.3 knots

In 1944

Junyo CVs 24,100 tons, 25.5 knots

In 1944 by carrier planes

Hiyo CV 24,100 tons, 25.5 knots

In 1944 by carrier planes

Unryu, Amagi, Katsuragi CVs 17,150 tons, 34 knots

Unryo sunk

Soryu CV 15,900 tons, 34 knots

At Midway by carrier planes

Hiryu CV 17,300 tons 34 knots

At Midway by carrier planes

Zuiho CVL 11,000 tons, 28 knots (Similar to Cabot but slower)

In 1944 by carrier planes in the Coral Sea by carrier planes

Zuiho CVL, 11,000 tons, 28 knots (Similar to Cabot but slower)

In 1944 by carrier planes in the Coral Sea by carrier planes

Shoho CVL Zuiho and 11,000 tons, 28 knots (Similar to Cabot but slower)

In 1944 by carrier planes in the Coral Sea by carrier planes

Chitose CVL 11,190 tons, 28.9 knots

In the Battle of Cape Engano in 1944 by carrier planes

Chiyoda CVL 11,190 tons, 28.9 knots

In the Battle of Cape Engano in 1944 by carrier planes

Ryujo CVL 10,600 tons, 29 knots

In the Solomons by carrier planes

Hosho CVL 7,400 tons

Used mostly for training

 

CV and CVL SANK in 1946 by the U.S. Navy

 

AIRCRAFT CARRIER

COMM

*SANK

Struck from the Naval Vessel Register (Navy List)

fifth Saratoga (CV-3)

16/11/27

25/07/46

15/08/46

fourth Independence (CVL-22), former CV & light cruiser Amsterdam, CL-59

14/01/43

=01 & 25 07/46    27/02/51(S)29/06/51 - Sunk as target

27/02/51

=Highly radioactive hulk of USS Independence (CVL-22) was assigned as a target vessel for the Bikini atomic bomb tests, she was placed within one-half mile of ground zero for the 1 July explosion. The veteran ship did not sink, however, and after taking part in another explosion 25 July was taken to Kwajalein and decommissioned 28 August 1946. The highly radioactive hulk was later taken to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii and San Francisco, Calif. for further test after her final atomic bomb tests during Operation Crossroads at Kwajalein and was finally sunk in weapons tests off the coast of California 29 January 1951.

 

The following U.S. Navy fleet carriers were assigned training duty with the Naval Air Training Station, Pensacola, Florida from 1947 to 1991:

 

The second Wright (CC-2), former AVT-7 & CVL-49 (31/03/47 to 26/01/49); the second Cabot (AVT-3), former CVL-28, CV-28 & Wilmington (CL-79) (27/10/48 to 21/01/55); the Monterey (AVT 2), former CVL-26, CV-26 & Dayton (CL-78) (15/09/50 to 16/01/56); the second Antietam (CVS-36), former CVA-36 & CV-36 (21/04/57 to 23/10/62); ninth Wasp (CVS-18), former CVA-18, CV-18 & Oriskany served as carrier qualification duty ship for the Naval Air Training Command from 24 January to 26 February 1967 and conducted operations in the Gulf of Mexico and off the east coast of Florida and the fifth Lexington (AVT-16), former CVT-16, CVS-16, CVA-16, CV-16 & Cabot (29/12/63 to 08/11/91).

 

 Two decommissioned Light aircraft carriers (CVL:s) were transferred to France and one to Spain under the Mutual Defense Assistance Program: The second Langley (CVL-27), former (CV-27), Fargo (CL-85) & Crown Point (CV-27) (01/08/51 to 20/03/63); and the Belleau Wood (CVL-24) former CV & New Haven (CL-76) (05/11/53 to 01/10/60) to France. The Dedalo, former Cabot AVT-3, CVL-28, CV & Wilmington (CL-79) was loaned by the U.S. to Spain, after over twelve years in "mothballs", in whose navy she served as Dedalo from 1967 to 1972 and then purchased from the U.S. by Spain in 1972.

 

“Capitalizing on wartime experience, USS Coral Sea (CVB-43) and her sisters, USS Midway (CVB-41) and USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVB-42), battle-class carriers, were constructed with the most advanced damage control innovations possible, including an armored flight deck and intensive internal subdivision not found on any carrier or other combatant before or since during World War II.  

 

 

Drawing created by un official navy web site

 

Aircraft Carrier Classes – Ref. 1 and 1A

 

Midway Class (CVB 41-43)

Fiscal Years 1943 (#s 41-42) and 1944 (# 43)

 

Midway class large fleet aircraft carriers - Ref. 1 and 1A and 1134

 

Displacement: 45,000 tons originally - 62,000 tons full load

Dimensions: 900 x 113 x 32.75 feet/274.3 x 34.4 x 10 meters

Extreme Dimensions: 968 x 136 x 32.75 feet/295 x 41.5 x 10 meters

Propulsion: Steam turbines, 12 565 psi boilers, four geared steam turbines and four shafts, 212,000 shaft horsepower

Flight Deck Width: 238 feet

Speed: 30-plus knots

Crew: 3,583 (as planned in 1943, was over 4000 by completion)

Armor: 3.5 inch flight deck, 7.6 inch belt

Armament: 18 single 5/54, 21 dual 40 mm AA, 28 single 20 mm AA (as planned)

Aircraft: Approximately 65 - 137 at various times

Complement: 2,533 ship's company; 2,239 in air wing

Concept/Program: These ships were a new, much larger design intended to correct certain problems in the Essex class design. They had armored flight decks, requiring a much larger hull and lower freeboard, to reduce topweight. They also carried a very heavy AA battery of 5/54 weapons. The armor requirement was originally meant to counter 8" cruiser gunfire, but by the time the ships were laid down the focus had shifted to defending against aircraft attack. The ships entered service soon after WWII. In their early years they were the only ships capable of operating nuclear strike aircraft.

Design: An all-new design. These ships were very wet, very crowded and quite complex; these problems were never solved. The design made them difficult and expensive to modernize or upgrade. In later years these ships were limited by low freeboard, severe crowding of crew and equipment, low hangar clearances, poor seakeeping and extreme age; they were unable to operate the latest and largest aircraft. Overall they must be considered to be a less than satisfactory design, but they had long service lives because of the urgent need for large carriers.

Variations: Configurations varied as completed; only Midway was completed to the original design. Roosevelt and especially Coral Sea carried fewer guns at completion. There were major differences following the 1950's reconstructions.

Modifications: All ships had their gun batteries gradually reduced over time. All ships were upgraded in 1947-48 with strengthened flight decks, 10 dual 3/50 AA fitted in place of 40 mm guns, facilities for nuclear weapons, and other improvements. Continual updating of electronics outfit.

Modernization: Underwent major reconstructions during the 1950's, but no two ships were reconstructed to the same standard. These rebuilds were the equivalent of the SCB 27C/125 reconstructions in the Essex class.

SCB 110: (Midway & Roosevelt) First reconstruction applied to this class, generally equivalent to the SCB 27C/125 combination. Additions included an angled deck, new catapults and arresting gear and a new electronics outfit; the gun battery was reduced and general improvements were carried out. Displacement was approximately 63,500 tons.

SCB 110A: (Coral Sea) A more extensive version of the SCB 110 applied to the other ships of the class. Aviation features and electronics were further improved, and gun battery was further reduced.

SCB 101: (Midway) A second reconstruction meant to be applied to all ships, to upgrade them beyond the SCB 110/110A configuration. This reconstruction included a longer flight deck, new catapults, and general all-around improvements. Due to the cost of this work, only one ship was upgraded under this program.

After SCB 110A Coral Sea was the most capable of the ships, but Midway surpassed her with the SCB 101 reconstruction. In addition to the SCB reconstructions, each ship received at least one major overhaul/upgrade, the details of which varied.

 

Prior to decommission:

 

Armament: Sea Sparrow missiles; 3 Phalanx CIWS 20mm mounts

Combat Systems: SPS-48C 3-D Air Search Radar; SPS-49 Air Search Radar and SPS-65

Navigation Radar: 2 Mk115 Fire Control; WLR- 1 ESMWLR-10; and ESMWLR-11 ESM

 

Departure from Service/Disposal: Roosevelt was in poor condition when she was discarded in 1977. Others remained in service long pasts their intended retirement dates. Coral Sea replaced and retired in 1990; Midway retired without replacement in 1992, due to force reductions.

 

“A redesignation from CV to CVB was made on 10 June 1942. CV was used to designate multi-role Fleet Carrier's” (Ref. 35/43).

 

“The CVB-41-class ships were to be named for what had been determined to be the three naval turning points of the war in the Pacific: Coral Sea, Midway and Leyte Gulf. Iowa class battleships; Baltimore-class heavy cruisers; Fletcher-class destroyers and starting in December 1942, the Essex class and Independence class carriers started to enter service.

 

Most of the carriers were named after American battles and famous former Navy ships.  The second Antietam (CV-36), fifth Boxer (CV-21) and second Lake Champlain (CV-39) were commissioned prior to the end of World War II (15 August 1945) but did not participate in World War II.

 

Fourteen fleet carriers (CVs) and one Light aircraft carrier (USS Bataan (CVL-29), former CV-29 & Buffalo (CL-99)) that served in World War II saw active service after the end of World War II. Panama Canal, Cape Horn and Cape of Good Hope transits made during World War II by any of these 13 carriers are included in the counting by carrier.

 

The Valley Forge (CV-45); Midway (CVB-41); Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVB-42), former Coral Sea (CVB-42); fifth Princeton (CV-37), former Valley Forge and Tarawa (CV-40) were commissioned after World War II and during 1945.

 

The CORAL SEA (CVB-43), former CV-42; Valley Forge (CV-45); third Kearsarge (CV-33); Saipan (CVL-48); third Leyte (CV-32), former Crown Point; second Wright (CVL-49); Philippine Sea (CV-47) and Oriskany (CV-34) were laid down in 1944 and all but CVB-43 and CV-33 were launched during 1945.

 

Two World War II fleet carriers (CVs) (Bon Homme Richard & Essex) and one Light aircraft carrier (CVL) (Bataan) made Korea Combat cruises, while the fourth Yorktown (CVS-10), former CVA-10, CV-10 & Bon Homme Richard participated in World War II, made one Korea Peace Keeping cruise and saw action in the Vietnam conflict/war.

 

The Bon Homme Richard (CV-31), former CVA-31 & CV-31 saw action in World War II, Korea and Vietnam.

 

The Bennington (CVS-20), former CVA-20 & CV-20; Hancock (CV-19), former, CVA, CV-19 & fourth Ticonderoga; Shangri-la (CVS-38), former CVA-38 & CV-38; the fourth Intrepid (CVS-11), former CVA-11 & CV-11; the eighth Hornet (CVS-12), former CVA-12, CV-12 & Kearsarge and the fourth Ticonderoga (CVS-14), former CVA-14, CV-14 & Hancock saw action in World War II and Vietnam.

 

United States CVA 58 - class

 

 

Drawing created by un official navy web site

 

USS United States (CVA-58), the third ship of the U.S. Navy named for its nation, was to be the lead ship of a radical new design of aircraft carrier. On 29 July 1948 President of the United States Harry Truman approved construction of five "supercarriers", for which funds had been provided in the Naval Appropriations Act of 1949. The keel of the first of those five postwar carriers was laid down on 18 April 1949 at Newport News Shipbuilding. 

 

The flush-deck United States was designed to launch and recover the 100,000 pound (45 t) aircraft required to carry early-model nuclear weapons, which weighed as much as five tons. The ship would have no island and be equipped with four aircraft elevators and four catapults. The construction cost of the new ship alone was estimated at US $190 million. The additional thirty-nine ships required to complete the accompanying task force raised the total cost to US $1.265 billion. United States was also designed to provide air support for amphibious forces and to conduct sea control operations, but its primary mission was long-range nuclear bombardment. That mission put the ship in harm's way long before construction began. The United States Air Force viewed United States as a challenge to their monopoly on strategic nuclear weapons delivery.

 

Swayed by limited funds and bitter opposition from the United States Army and Air Force, Secretary of Defense Louis A. Johnson announced on 23 April 1949 — five days after the ship's keel was laid down — the cancellation of construction of United States. Secretary of the Navy John Sullivan immediately resigned, and the subsequent "Revolt of the Admirals" cost Admiral Louis Denfeld his position as Chief of Naval Operations, but atomic bombs went to sea on the aircraft carrier USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVB-42), former Coral Sea (CVB-42) in 1950.

 

A Brief History of U.S. Navy Aircraft Carriers - Ref. 1088

 

Why does the U.S. Need the aircraft carrier?

Basic Description

The Carrier Battle Group

The Carrier Air Wing

Colors Worn by flight deck personnel

Aircraft Carriers Facts

Listing of All U.S. Navy carriers

Aircraft Carrier Photos

Carrier History (Part I - The Early Years)

The Escort ("Jeep") Carriers

Carrier History (Part II - WWII - 1941 - 1942)

Carrier History (Part III - 1943)

Carrier History (Part IV - 1944-1945)

Carrier History (Part V - Post War)

Carrier History (Part VI - Korea and the 1950s)

Carrier History (Part VII - Space and Vietnam)

Evolution of Aircraft Carriers

 Ref. 1089

 

1937 to Present Aircraft Carrier Classifications: - Ref. 1090

 

AV: Seaplane Tender (retired)

AVG: Auxiliary Aircraft Ferry (Escort carrier) (1941–2)

AVD: Seaplane Tender Destroyer (retired)

AVP: Seaplane Tender, Small (retired)

ACV: Auxiliary Aircraft Carrier (Escort carrier) (1942)

CV: Fleet Aircraft Carrier (1921–1975), Multi-purpose Aircraft Carrier (1975–present)

CVA: Attack Aircraft Carrier (category merged into CV, 30 June 1975)

CVAN: Attack Aircraft Carrier, Nuclear (category merged into CVN, 30 June 1975)

CVB: Large Aircraft Carrier (category merged into CVA, 1952)

CVE: Escort aircraft carrier (retired) (1943–retirement of type)

CVHA: Assault Helicopter Aircraft Carrier (retired in favor of several LH-series amphibious assault ship hull codes)

CVL: Light aircraft carrier (retired)

CVN: Multi-purpose Aircraft Carrier (Nuclear-Propulsion)

CVS: Antisubmarine Aircraft Carrier (retired)

CVT: Training Aircraft Carrier (changed to AVT (Auxiliary))

CVU: Utility Aircraft Carrier (retired)

 

1946 forward - Aircraft Carrier Classes – Ref. 1 and 1A

 

Aircraft Carrier Classifications while on deployment:

 

CVs & CVBs reclassified CVA on 1 October 1952

CV/CVA deployment counts as a CV deployment

CVB/CVA deployment counts as a CVB deployment

 

CV and CVN – Multi-purpose Aircraft Carrier - June 30 to 1 July 1975:

 

CVA/CV deployment counts as a CVA deployment

CVN(A)/CVN deployment counts as a CVN(A) deployment

CV/CVS deployment counts as a CV deployment—1957 thru 1960’s

AVT/CVT Carriers made no deployments

 

Aircraft Carrier Classifications:

 

CV - Aircraft Carrier

AGMR-2 - Communications Major Relay ship

CVL – Light Aircraft Carrier

CC-2 - Command Ship

CVB – Large Carrier

CV and CVN – Multi-purpose Aircraft Carrier

CVA and CVA(N) - Attack Aircraft Carrier

AVT - Auxiliary Aircraft Transport

CVS - Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) support aircraft carrier

CVT-16 – Aircraft Training Carrier

LPH - Amphibious Assault Carrier

Langley AV-3, former, CV-1 & Jupiter (AC-3), the first aircraft carrier of the United States Navy completed overhaul and conversion to a seaplane tender at Mare Island Naval Shipyard of Vallejo, California 26 February 1937.

 

Forrestal CV 59 - class

 

 

Drawing created by un official navy web site

 

Displacement: 75,900 to 79,300 tons full load

Length: 1,063 to 1,086

Beam: 129 feet

Flight Deck Width: 252 feet

Speed: 30-plus knots

Plant: Eight boilers, with Forrestal's plant approximately 50 percent lower pressure than other ships in class; four geared steam turbines, four shafts (260,000 shaft horsepower for Forrestal, 280,000 for others)

Aircraft: Approximately 75

Armament: Sea Sparrow missiles and 3 Phalanx CIWS 20mm mounts [installed during SLEP]

Combat Systems: SPS-48C 3-D Air Search Radar; SPS-49 Air Search Radar and SPS-673 Mk91

Fire Control: SLQ-29 EWWLR-1; ESMWLR-3 and ESMWLR-11 ESM

 

John F. Kennedy CV 67 – class

 

 

Drawing created by un official navy web site

 

Builder: Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corp., Newport News, Virginia

Speed: Over 30 knots

Engines:  Four, geared turbine

Boilers:  Eight 

Number of Catapults:  Four, steam powered

Arresting Gear:  Four wires

Effective Landing Area: 80,588 sq.

Number of Aircraft Elevators:  Four

Elevator Lifting Capacity: 130,000 pounds each (58,500 kg)

Breadth at Flight Deck:  252 Feet

Size of Elevators:  4,000 square feet

Number of Screws, Blades:  four, five

Aircraft Capacity:  80+ - One squadron of F-14; three of F/A-18; Four Prowlers; Four Hawkeyes; Six Vikings; two Shadows; Eight Sea Kings or Seahawks

Catapult Length: 263 feet (79.7 m)

General Quarters Repair Lockers: Eleven

Sea Sparrow Launcher: Two, eight missiles each

.50-cal Gun Mounts: Nine / M-60 Gun Mounts: TWO                                                                                                    http://www.nn.northropgrumman.com/photogallery/Carriers/CPF06-90.jpg

 

Enterprise CVN 65 - class

 

 

Drawing created by un official navy web site

 

Builder: Newport News Shipbuilding Company, Newport News, Virginia

Date Deployed: November 25, 1961 (USS Enterprise)

Cost: annual running costs estimated at $220 m

Crew: Ship's Company: 3,320 - Air Wing: 2,600

Propulsion: Eight nuclear reactors, four shafts

Length: 1,101 feet 2 inches (335.64 meters)

Flight Deck Width: 76 m (252 ft)

Beam: 133 feet (39.9 meters); 252 feet (75.6 meters)

Displacement: 89,600 tons ( 81,283.8 metric tons) full load

Speed: 30+ knots (34.5 miles per hour)

Crew: Ship's Company: 3,350 - Air Wing 2,480

Aircraft: 85+ - Three of F/A-18; Four Prowlers; Four Hawkeyes; Six Vikings; Two Shadows; Eight Sea Kings or Seahawks

Armament:  Two Sea Sparrow launchers; 3 x 20 mm Phalanx CIWS mounts and Two Shadows; Eight Sea Kings or Seahawks

 

Kitty Hawk CV 63 – class

 

 

Drawing created by un official navy web site

 

Builder: New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey

Total Cost: $265,200,000 in 1961

Date Deployed: April 29, 1961 (USS Kitty Hawk)

Propulsion: Eight boilers, four geared steam turbines, four shafts, 280,000 shaft horsepower

Length: 1062.5 feet (323.8 meters)

Beam: 130 feet (39 meters); Flight Deck Width: 252 feet (76.8 meters)

Displacement: Approx. 80,800 tons (73,300.5 metric tons) full load

Speed: 30+ knots (34.5+ miles per hour)

Crew: Ship's Company: 3,150 - Air Wing: 2,480

Draft: 36 feet

Total Height Above Waterline: 201 feet

Total Number of Decks & Levels: 8 decks (down) and 11 levels (up)

Electrical System Capacity: 14,000,000 watts

Fuel Capacity: 4,000,000 gallons (15,200,000 liters)

Anchors: Two - 30 tons each (27.3 mt)

Weight of Anchor Links: 360 pounds each (162 kg)

Max Length of Anchor Chain: 1,080 feet (327.6 m)

Propellers: Four, 21 feet wide (7m)

Estimated Number of Spaces: 2,400+

Flight Deck Area: 4.1 acres

Number of Catapults: Four (Steam Powered) and Catapult Length: 263 feet (79.7 m)

Arresting Gear: Four and Effective Landing Area: 120 feet (36.4 m)

Aircraft Elevators: Four

Elevator Lifting Capacity: 130,000 pounds each (58,500 kg)

General Quarters Repair Lockers: Eleven

Armament:

Sea Sparrow Launcher: Two, eight missiles each

Rolling Airframe Missile Launchers: Two, 21 missiles each

Close-in Weapons System (CIWS) Mounts: 3 20mm Phalanx CIWS mounts, 1,500 rounds each

-50-cal Gun Mounts: Nine / M-60 Gun Mounts: Two

Aircraft Capacity:  80+ - One squadron of F-14; Three of F/A-18; Four Prowlers; Four Hawkeyes; Six Vikings; Two Shadows; Eight Sea Kings or Seahawks

 

Nimitz class multirole aircraft carriers (7+3 ships) – Ref. 1 & 47

 

 

Drawing created by un official navy web site

 

Builder: Newport News Shipbuilding Co., Newport News, Va.

Date Deployed: May 3, 1975 (USS Nimitz)

Unit Cost: About $4.5 billion each; projected service life: 50 years

Propulsion: 2 Westinghouse brand A4W reactors which, in turn, power quadruple steam turbines and 4 x shafts at 260,000 shaft horsepower Dimensions: 1,092 250 x 37-39 feet/332.85 x 76.2 x 11.3-11.9 meters

Beam: 134 feet (40.84 meters); Flight Deck Width: 252 feet (76.8 meters)

Displacement: 101,000-104,000 tons full load Crew: Ship's Company: 3,200 - Air Wing: 2,480

Speed: 30+ knots (34.5+ miles per hour)

Crew: Ship's Company: 3,200 - Air Wing: 2,480

Radar: SPS-48E 3-D air search, SPS-49(V)5 2-D air search (CVN 76: SPS-49A(V)1), Mk23 target acquisition, 2 SPN-46 air traffic control, SPN-43B air traffic control, SPN-44 landing aid

Fire Control: 3 Mk91 NSSM guidance systems with Mk95 radars

EW: SLQ-32(V)4 jamming/deception suite, Mk36 SRBOC decoy RL, SLQ-25A Nixie torpedo countermeasure

Aviation: full flight deck with angled deck, 684 x 108 x 26.5 foot/208.4 x 32.9 x 8 meter hangar, 4 deck-edge elevators, 4 C13 catapults

Armament:  Two or three (depending on modification) 3 Mk29 8-cell NATO Sea Sparrow launchers, 20mm Phalanx CIWS mounts: (3 on Nimitz CVN 68 and Dwight D. Eisenhower CVN69 and 4 on Vinson and later ships of the class.). CVN 68: 2 21-cell RAM

Aircraft: 85 aircraft of various makes and types and include the F/A/-18 Hornet strike fighters (formerly F-14 Tomcat interceptors, since retired), EA-6B Prowler airborne electronic warfare, E2-C Hawkeye airborne early warning, S-3B Viking anti-submarine warfare, SH-60/HH-60 Seahawk (helicopters) and C-2A Greyhound transports. All of these systems are further complimented by the offensive and defensive capabilities of her accompanying support vessels when partnered as such.

Concept/Program: USN's primary carrier class. The Nimitz class is considered the finest carrier design ever; the ships will be in production for over 30 years, and the last will be in service up to 80 years after the first was completed. CVN 77, the final ship of this class, will be a "transition" ship to the new CVNX design, and will differ considerably from the other ships of the class. Although some references consider CVN 71-76 as a separate class from CVN 68-70, progressive overhauls and modernization have eliminated many of the differences.

Design: Based on previous USN carrier classes, but with general improvements throughout. There have been progressive modifications throughout the history of the class; each ship is more modern than the previous vessel. There are many detail variations among the ships. CVN-76 will have a bulbous bow and a significantly modified island - the island will be one deck lower than in previous ships, and will carry all the ship's radars; the separate radar mast abaft the island will be eliminated.

Modernization: Starting with Nimitz, each ship will undergo a RCOH refueling and overhaul, and will be brought up to the standards of the latest ships. The Nimitz RCOH included complete electronics modernization, complete removal and reconstruction of the upper two levels of the island, and significant rearrangement of radars, similar to the CVN-76 configuration.

 

Aircraft Carriers – CV &CVN:

 

“Congress approved $4,053.7 million in FY2001 procurement funding to complete CVN-77's total procurement cost of $4,974.9 million. The ship's estimated total procurement cost has since grown to about $6.35 billion. The ship was named in honor of former president George H. W. Bush on December 9, 2002” (Ref. L & 1-N).

 

Ronald Reagan (CVN-76) was procured in FY1995 at a cost of $4.45 billion and entered service in July 2003 as the replacement for the Constellation (CV-64). The Navy retired the John F. Kennedy in FY2006 and thereby reduced the carrier force to 11 ships” (Ref. L & 1-N).

 

CVN-78 Gerald Ford – Ref. H - CVX / CVN-21 / CVN-78

 

“The lead ship of the CVN-21 class, designated CVN-78, is intended to eventually replace the USS Enterprise (CVN-65). Most of the recently retired aircraft carriers bore the names of famous warships [Constellation, Ranger] or battles [Saratoga, Lexington]. Some older aircraft carrier names have been applied to amphibious assault ships: Kearsarge, Bonhomme Richard, Essex, Wasp.

 

“The Navy originally wanted the carrier after CVN-77 to be a completely new-design aircraft carrier (hence its initial name of CVNX-1, rather than CVN-78). In May 1998, however, the Navy announced that it could not afford to develop an all-new design for the ship and would instead continue to modify the Nimitz-class design with each new carrier that is procured. Under this strategy, CVN-77 and CVNX-1 were to be, technologically, the first and second ships in an evolutionary series of carrier designs.

 

Compared to the baseline Nimitz-class design, CVNX-1 was to require 300 to 500 fewer sailors to operate and would feature an entirely new and less expensive nuclear reactor plant, a new electrical distribution system, and an electromagnetic (as opposed to steam-powered) aircraft catapult system. In large part because of the reduction in crew size, CVNX-1 was projected to have a lower life-cycle operation and support (O&S) cost than the baseline Nimitz-class design. CVNX-1 was to cost $2.54 billion to develop and $7.48 billion to procure, giving it a total acquisition cost of $10.02 billion.

 

In May 2002 Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld directed DOD offices to reexamine the need for 5 major defense acquisition programs, including CVNX-1. In response, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) began studying several alternatives to the Navy's carrier acquisition plan, including procuring smaller conventional carriers instead of large nuclear-powered carriers; procuring a repeat version of CVN-77 in FY2007 instead of CVNX-1; and skipping procurement of CVNX-1.

 

In November and December 2002, after reviewing these alternatives, OSD decided to alter the design of CVNX-1 to incorporate additional advanced features originally intended for CVNX-2 (the name at the time for the next carrier after CVNX-1). These changes included a new and enlarged flight deck, an increased allowance for future technologies (including electric weapons), and additional manpower reductions. Compared to the baseline Nimitz-class design, the ship would now require 500 to 800 fewer sailors to operate” (Ref. L & N). 

 

“To signify these changes the ship's name was changed from CVNX-1 to CVN-21. Incorporating the changes increased the ship's development cost by about $600 million and its procurement cost by about $700 million. OSD reportedly did not consider CVNX-1 sufficiently transformational; the CVN-21 proposal appears intended to increase the transformational content of the ship” (Ref. L & 3-N).

 

“The Navy in the latter months of 2002 proposed to fund the procurement of CVNX- 1/CVN-21 starting in FY2004 through the Navy's research and development account rather than the Navy's ship-procurement account, known formally as the Shipbuilding and Conversion, Navy (SCN) account. In December 2002, however, it was reported that the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) objected to this proposal. As a result, the Pentagon is proposing to fund the procurement of CVN-21 through the SCN account” (Ref. L & 4-N).

 

CVNX Program multirole aircraft carriers (0+2 ships) - Ref. 47

Specifications unknown - evolved from Nimitz Class.

 

“Concept/Program: CVNX is a new carrier design intended to follow the Nimitz class in production. The design will be gradually evolved from the existing Nimitz design, rather than starting with a completely "clean sheet". Details are not yet determined, but the ships will feature much lower manning, new electronic systems, electromagnetic catapults, and a new propulsion plant. CVN 77, the final Nimitz class ship, will be a "transition" ship, and will include some of the CVNX technology” (Ref. 47).

 

Builders: Northrop Grumman Newport News, VA.

 

Number

Name

Year

FLT

Homeport

Group

CVNX 1

(none)

2013

--

--

--

CVNX 2

(none)

2018

--

--

--

 

“Note that the new CVN-21 Class will have a redesigned nuclear power plant whose features will affect its RCOH. The new system is expected to make use of advances from the USA’s Seawolf and Virginia Class submarine reactors, in order to eliminate expensive reactor refueling completely, increase the reactors’ output, and drop the number of people required to operate them” (Ref. 47).

 

Navy CVN-21 Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress


August 20, 2004 Summary:

 

“Current Administration plans call for procuring the Navy's next aircraft carrier, called CVN-21, in FY2007. The Navy in early 2004 estimated that CVN-21 would cost a total of about $3.1 billion develop and $8.6 billion to procure, for a total acquisition cost of about $11.7 billion. Advance procurement "down payments" on this ship have been approved by Congress each year since FY2001” (Ref. M1).

 

“Skeptics, while acknowledging the operational value of large carriers, could question whether, in light of their cost, there might be more cost effective alternatives. Potential alternatives include, among other things, smaller carriers about the size of the LHA(R) amphibious assault ship, which might cost roughly $3 billion to procure; UAV/UCAV carriers (which would be designed to embark air wings composed mostly of unmanned air vehicles [UAVs] and unmanned combat air vehicles [UCAVs]); and small carriers, such as high-speed ships large enough to embark a small number of manned tactical aircraft each. A February 2005 report on potential Navy force architecture by DOD's Office of Force Transformation (OFT) proposed a medium-sized (57,000-ton) carrier based on a commercial-like ship hull design, and also a small (13,500-ton), high-speed catamaran carrier” (Ref. L & 7-N).

 

“Skeptics could argue that even though substantial funds have already been appropriated for CVN-21, not all of these funds have been expended, and that if large carriers are not cost effective compared to alternatives, Congress should not ³throw good money after bad² by continuing to fund CVN-21” (Ref. L & N).

 

“On August 19, 2004, the Department of Defense (DOD) reported that the estimated development cost for a 3-ship carrier program (CVN-21 plus two sister ships to be procured years after CVN-21) had increased by $728 million, to $4.33 billion. DOD now estimates that the program would have a total acquisition cost of about $36.1 billion ($4.33 billion for development and $31.75 billion for procurement), or an average of about $12 billion per ship. If much of the $728-million increase in the estimated development cost is for the CVN-21 itself, then CVN-21's estimated acquisition cost may now be more than $12 billion. In mid-August 2004, it was reported that the Navy's draft FY2006-FY2011 shipbuilding plan would delay procurement of CVN-21 by one year, to FY2008. Based o n past data for carrier construction programs, such a delay might increase the procurement cost of the ship by a few or several hundred million dollars, which could increase its total acquisition cost to well over $12 billion, and possibly something closer to $13 billion. This report will be updated as events warrant” (Ref. M1).

 

CVN-21 (also called CVN-78) is the next planned aircraft carrier after CVN-77. CVN-21 simply means aircraft carrier for the 21st Century. In August 2004 DOD began describing the CVN-21 program as a 3-ship program encompassing CVN-21 and two similar follow-on ships (CVN-79 and CVN-80) to be procured in later years. On August 19, 2004, DOD reported that the estimated development cost for the 3-ship program had increased by $728 million, to $4.33 billion. DOD estimates that the 3-ship program would have a total acquisition cost of about $36.1 billion ($4.33 billion for development and $31.75 billion for procurement), or an average of about $12 billion per ship” (Ref. L & 8-N).

 

Affordability, Cost Effectiveness, and Potential Alternatives.

 

“With an estimated average acquisition cost of about $12 billion per ship, would the 3 carriers in the CVN-21 program be affordable and cost effective? Supporters could argue that in spite of their cost, carriers are flexible platforms that in recent years have proven themselves highly valuable in various U.S. military operations, particularly where U.S. access to overseas bases has been absent or constrained.

 

Carriers, they could argue, have been useful not only for operating strike fighters and other tactical aircraft, but also for embarking Army forces (as during the 1994 Haiti crisis) and special operations forces (as in the 2001-2002 war in Afghanistan). Supporters could also argue that Congress is already heavily committed to procuring CVN-21, having approved more than $3.8 billion of the ship's total acquisition cost from FY2001 through FY2005” (Ref. L & 8-N).

 

Legislative Activity in FY2005 - L & 9 of N

 

 

 

Drawing created by un official navy web site

 

USS George H. W. Bush (CVN-77)

 

090407-N-5735P-067 ATLANTIC OCEAN (April 7, 2009) The aircraft carrier USS George H.W. Bush (CVN 77) is underway from Naval Station Norfolk conducting acceptance trials and the Board of Inspections and Survey to test the ship's material conditions and readiness. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st class Demetrius L. Patton/Released)

 

http://www.cnaf.navy.mil/content.aspx?PhotoID=1268

 

090407-N-5735P-067 - ATLANTIC OCEAN (April 7, 2009) The aircraft carrier USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) is underway from Naval Station Norfolk conducting acceptance trials and the Board of Inspections and Survey to test the ship's material conditions and readiness. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st class Demetrius L. Patton/Released)

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:USS_George_H.W._Bush_(CVN-77).jpg

 

The George H. W. Bush (CVN-77) is the 10th and final Nimitz-class aircraft carrier. This evolutionary ship will pave the way to a new class of carriers. Named after the nation’s 41st President, this powerful warship of the 21st century will feature numerous improvements and modernizations. Learn more about this state-of-the-art ship at Reference I.

 

“Northrop Grumman christened the nation’s 10th and final Nimitz-class aircraft carrier, George H. W. Bush (CVN-77), on October 7, 2006. The ship’s namesake and 41st President of the United States, George H. W. Bush, attended the ceremony and became the first president in the shipyard’s 120-year history to participate in the christening of his namesake ship.

 

Several members of the Bush family were on hand for the special occasion, including the former president’s wife Barbara and their daughter, Doro Bush Koch. Mrs. Koch serves as the ship’s sponsor and performed the traditional honor of breaking a bottle of American sparkling wine across the ship’s bow during the ceremony.

President George W. Bush also attended and honored his father during the ceremony as a special guest speaker” (Ref. C).

 

Lieutenant Junior Grade George Bush, USNR – Ref. D

 

LTJG George Bush's citation for the Distinguished Flying Cross

 

Vice President Bush Calls WW II Experience 'Sobering.'; Naval Aviation News 67 (Mar-Apr 1985): 12-15.

 

George Bush in World War II: A Short Bibliography; Christman, Timothy J.

 

Upon hearing of the Pearl Harbor attack, while a student at Phillips Academy in Andover, Mass., George Bush decided he wanted to join the Navy to become an aviator. Six months later, after graduation, he enlisted in the Navy on his 18th birthday and began preflight training at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. After completing the 10-month course, he was commissioned as an ensign in the U.S. Naval Reserve on 9 June 1943, several days before his 19th birthday; making him the youngest naval aviator then.

 

After finishing flight training, he was assigned to Torpedo Squadron (VT-51) as photographic officer in September 1943. As part of Air Group 51, his squadron was based on USS San Jacinto CVL-30, former CV-30, Reprisal & light cruiser Newark  (CL-100) in the spring of 1944. San Jacinto was part of Task Force 58 that participated in operations against Marcus and Wake Islands in May, and then in the Marianas during June.

 

On 19 June, the task force triumphed in one of the largest air battles of the war. During the return of his aircraft from the mission, Ensign Bush's aircraft made a forced water landing. The destroyer, USS Clarence K. Bronson, rescued the crew, but the plane was lost. On 25 July, Ensign Bush and another pilot received credit for sinking a small cargo ship.

 

After Bush was promoted to Lieutenant Junior Grade on 1 August, USS San Jacinto (CVL-30) commenced operations against the Japanese in the Bonin Islands. On 2 September 1944, Bush piloted one of four aircraft from VT-51 that attacked the Japanese installations on Chi Chi Jima. For this mission his crew included Radioman Second Class John Delaney, and Lieutenant Junior Grade William White, USNR, who substituted for Bush's regular gunner. During their attack, four TBM Avengers from VT-51 encountered intense antiaircraft fire. While starting the attack, Bush's aircraft was hit and his engine caught on fire.

 

He completed his attack and released the bombs over his target scoring several damaging hits. With his engine on fire, Bush flew several miles from the island, where he and one other crew member on the TBM Avenger bailed out of the aircraft. However, the other man's chute did not open and he fell to his death. It was never determined which man bailed out with Bush. Both Delaney and White were killed in action. While Bush anxiously waited four hours in his inflated raft, several fighters circled protectively overhead until he was rescued by the lifeguard submarine, USS Finback (SS-230). For this action, Bush received the Distinguished Flying Cross. During the month he remained on Finback, Bush participated in the rescue of other pilots.

 

Subsequently, Bush returned to San Jacinto in November 1944 and participated in operations in the Philippines. When San Jacinto returned to Guam, the squadron, which had suffered 50 percent casualties of its pilots, was replaced and sent to the United States. Throughout 1944, he had flown 58 combat missions for which he received the

Distinguished Flying Cross, three Air Medals, and the Presidential Unit Citation awarded San Jacinto.

 

Because of his valuable combat experience, Bush was reassigned to Norfolk and put in a training wing for new torpedo pilots. Later, he was assigned as a naval aviator in a new torpedo squadron, VT-153. With the surrender of Japan, he was honorably discharged in September 1945 and then entered Yale University.

 

Former Lieutenant George Herbert Walker Bush, U.S. Naval Reserve

 

Transcript Of Naval Service

12 JUN 1924 Born in Milton, Massachusetts

13 JUN 1942 Enlisted in U.S. Naval Reserve

5  AUG 1942  Reported for Active Duty

8  JUN 1943  Honorably Discharged

9  JUN 1943  Ensign, U.S. Naval Reserve and continued on Active Duty

1  AUG 1944  Lieutenant (junior grade)

18 SEP 1945 Released from Active Duty under honorable conditions

16 NOV 1948 Lieutenant

24 OCT 1955 Resignation accepted under honorable conditions

 

SHIPS AND STATIONS

DATES

U.S. Naval Air Station,  Ft. Lauderdale, Fla. (Instrn)

June 1943-Aug. 1943

Naval Air Operational, Training Command, Carrier Qualification Training Unit, U.S. Naval Air Station, Glenview, Ill. (Instrn)

Aug. 1943-Aug. 1943

Air Force, U.S. Atlantic Fleet, U.S. Naval Air Station, Norfolk, Va. (Instrn)

Aug. 1943-Sept. 1943

Carrier Aircraft Service 21 (Instrn)

Sept. 1943-Sept. 1943

Torpedo Squadron 51 (Naval Aviator)

Sept. 1943-Dec. 1943

Air Force, U.S. Atlantic Fleet, U.S. Naval Air Station, Norfolk, Va.

Dec. 1944-Feb. 1945

Torpedo Squadron 97 

Feb. 1945-March 1945

Torpedo Squadron 153(Naval Aviator)

March 1945-Sept. 1945

Headquarters, FIFTH Naval District 

Sept. 1945-Sept. 1945

 

PERSONAL DECORATIONS

Distinguished Flying Cross

Air Medal with two gold stars in lieu of subsequent awards

Presidential Unit Citation awarded USS San Jacinto (CVL-30)

 

RESERVE AFFILIATION

NONE (Resigned 24 Oct 1955)

Other documents related to LTJG Bush at the Naval Historical Center:

Torpedo Squadron FIFTY-ONE's Aircraft Action Report of 2 September 1944, World War II Reports, Operational Archives Branch, Naval Historical Center

Extracts from USS Finback's Tenth War Patrol Report on rescue of LTJG Bush, Operational Archives Branch, Naval Historical Center

Carrier Air Group TWENTY's Aircraft Action Report of 2 September 1944, World War II Reports, Operational Archives Branch, Naval Historical Center” (Ref. D).

 

U. S. AIRCRAFT CARRIER EVOLUTION

Part I of II (1920 to 2012)

Part II of II (2013 to Present)