U. S. AIRCRAFT CARRIERS PARTICIPATING IN SCB’s, SLEP COH AND RCOH’s (1949 to Present)

 

U.S. AIRCRAFT CARRIERS MODIFIED WITH ANGLED FLIGHT DECK, ENCLOSED HURRICANE BOW AND STEAM DRIVEN CATAPULTS

 

AIRCRAFT  CARRIER

SCB-27A

SCB-27C

SCB-125

SCB-125A

SCB 110

110A/101

ninth Wasp (CVA-18), former CV-18 & Oriskany

 

SCB-27A while in reserve at New York Naval Shipyard & SCB-125 at San Francisco Navy Yard

*05/49 to

28/09/51

Recomm. 28/09/51

N/A

*05/55 to 01/12/55

N/A

N/A

seventh Essex (CVA-9), former CV-9

 

 

SCB-27A & SCB-125 while in reserve at Bremerton Navy Yard

*02/49 to 01//02/51

Recomm. 01//02/51

N/A

07/55 to 03/01/56

N/A

N/A

second Lake Champlain (CVA-39), former CV-39

 

SCB-27A while decommissioned at Newport News Shipbuilding & Drydock Co. & SCB 125 angled deck modernization cancelled

*08/50 to 19/09/52

Recomm. 19/09/52

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Bennington (CVA-20), former CV-20

 

SCB-27A while in reserve & SCB-125 at New York Naval Shipyard

30/10/50 to 30/11/51

Recomm. 13/11/52

N/A

12/06/54 to 19/03/55 

N/A

N/A

third Kearsarge (CVA-33), former CV-33

 

 

 

SCB 27A while decommissioned & SCB-125 at Bremerton Navy Yard

16/06/50 to 15/02/52 

Decomm. 16/06/50

Recomm. 15/02/52

N/A

*07/56 to 31/01/57

Recomm. 31/01/57

 

 

N/A

N/A

third Leyte (CVA-32), former CV-32

 

Replaced in SCB 27 program by CV 39; received no major upgrades

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

eighth Hornet (CVA-12), former CV-12 & Kearsarge

 

SCB-27A at New York Naval Shipyard while in reserve & SCB-125 at Bremerton Navy Yard

12/05/51 to 11/09/53

Recomm. 11/09/53

N/A

28/01/56 to 03/08/56

N/A

N/A

second Randolph (CVA-15), former CV-15

 

SCB 27A at Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co. while in reserve & SCB-125 at Norfolk Navy Yard

*01/52 to 01/07/53

Recomm. 01/07/53

N/A

18/06/55 to *01/56

N/A

N/A

Coral Sea (CVA-43), former CVB-43 & CV-42

 

 

Underwent short refit 9/1955 to 2/1956. SCB 110A reconstruction at Bremerton Navy Yard 3/1957, completed and recommissioned 25 Jan 1960. Second modernization (SCB 101) cancelled

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

16/04/57 to 25/01/60 Decomm.

24/04/57

Recomm.

25/01/60

Hancock (CVA-19), former CV-19 & fourth Ticonderoga

 

SCB 27C at Bremerton Navy Yard while in reserve & SCB 125 at San Francisco Navy

N/A

05/12/51 to 15/02/54

Recomm. 15/02/54

13/04/56 to 15/11/56

N/A

N/A

fourth Ticonderoga (CVA-14), former CV-14 & Hancock

 

SCB 27C at New York Naval Shipyard while in reserve & SCB-125 at Norfolk Navy Yard

N/A

01/04/52 to 11/09/54

Recomm. 2nd 11/09/54

*08/56 to 01/04/57

N/A

N/A

fourth Intrepid (CVA-11), former CV-11

 

SCB-27C at Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co. while in reserve & SCB-125 at New York Naval Shipyard

N/A

09/04/52 to 15/10/54

Recomm. 15/10/54

29/09/56 to  02/05/57

N/A

N/A

fourth Yorktown (CVA-10), former CV-10 & Bon Homme Richard

 

SCB 27A while in reserve & SCB-125 at Bremerton Navy Yard

*06/52 to 02//01/53

Recomm. 02//01/53

N/A

21/03/55 to 14/10/55

N/A

N/A

second Antietam (CVA-36), former CV-36

 

Decommissioned to reserve 21 June 1949. Recommissioned for Korean War service 17 Jan 1951 without significant modifications.

N/A

17 Jan 1951

09/52 to 19/12/52

N/A

N/A

Returned home in April and rejoined the Pacific Reserve Fleet briefly. She was reactivated later that summer and, in August, transited the Panama Canal to join the Atlantic Fleet. In September, the warship entered the New York Naval Shipyard for major alterations that included the installation of an flight deck to increase her jet aircraft launching capability (SCB-27C). In December 1952, Antietam emerged from the yard as America's first experimental angled deck (prototype SCB 125) (09/52 to 19/12/52)

Shangri-la (CVA-38), former CV-38

 

 

SCB-27C & SCB-125 while in reserve at Bremerton Navy Yard

N/A

14/11/52 to 10/01/55 Recomm. 01/02/55

14/11/52 to 10/01/55

N/A

N/A

second Bon Homme Richard (CVA-31), former CV-31

 

 

SCB 27C & SCB-125 while in reserve at San Francisco Navy Yard

 

15/05/53 to 31/10/55

Recomm. 2nd 06/09/55

 

15/05/53 to 31/10/55

Recomm. 2nd 06/09/55

N/A

N/A

fifth Lexington (CVA-16), former CV-16 & Cabot

 

 

SCB 27C & SCB-125 at Bremerton Navy Yard while in reserve

N/A

01/09/53 to /01/09/55

01/09/53 to 01/09/55

Recomm. 01/09/55

N/A

N/A

Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVA-42), former (CVB-42) & Coral Sea (CVB-42)

 

 

SCB 110 while decommissioned at Bremerton Navy Yard

Second rebuild (SCB 101) cancelled due to cost. Received austere overhaul in 1968 to correct some of the most serious deficiencies

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

23/04/54 to 05/04/56 Decomm. 23/04/54 Recomm. 26/04/56

 

Midway (CVA-41), former CVB-41

 

 

 

SCB 110/SCB 101 while in the Pacific Fleet Reserve, in commission special at San Francisco Navy Yard, started 15 Feb 1966; completed and recommissioned 31 Jan 1970

 

 

N/A

N/A

*07/55 to 30/09/57

Decomm. 07/55 Recomm. 30/09/57

SCB 101

*Oriskany (CVA-34), former CV-34

 

SCB-125A while still under construction, although construction suspended for a while (SCB 125 angled deck modernization, SCB 27C catapult retrofit & aluminum flight deck) at San Francisco Navy Yard.

*08/47 to 25/09/50 Comm.

01/10/56 to 29/05/59

Decomm. 02/01/57

N/A

01/10/56 to 07/03/59

Decomm.

02/01/57

Recomm. 07/03/59

N/A

USS Midway (CVA-41) remained with the 7th Fleet until 28 June 1955 when she sailed for overhaul at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. Here, she was out of commission until 30 September 1957, while she was modernized and such new innovations as an enclosed bow and an angled flight deck were installed” (Ref. 1-Midway).

USS Midway (CV-41), former CVA– 41 & CVB-41 decommissioned on 11 April 1992.

USS Coral Sea (CVA-43) returned to Norfolk, Va. on 11 February 1957. She cleared that port on 26 February and visited Santos, Brazil; Valparaiso, Chile; an d Balboa, C.Z., before arriving at Bremerton, Wash., on 15 April 1990, Coral Sea was decommissioned for conversion 24 May 1957, and upon completion was recommissioned on 25 January 1960 to rejoin the Fleet” (Ref. 1-Coral Sea).

USS Coral Sea (CV-43), former CVA-43, CVB-43 & CV-42 decommissioned on 26 April 1990 at NORFOLK, VA., NAVY SHIPYARD, PIER 12.

“Construction of USS Oriskany (CVA-34) was suspended on 22 August 1948 when 85% complete pending redesign to allow operation of modern aircraft. Torn down to 60% complete, rebuilt and commissioned on 25 September 1950 in SCB 27A configuration as prototype for class rebuild” (Ref. 1-Oriskany).

*Estimated

*Oriskany (CVA-34), former CV-34 returned to San Francisco on 13 June 1956 and entered the shipyard for overhaul, on 1 October 1956. She decommissioned there on 2 January 1957 for modernization work that included a new aluminum angled flight deck and enclosed hurricane bow (SCB-125). New, powerful steam catapults replaced hydraulic with steam catapults installed by the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, Wash. Oriskany recommissioned at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard, on 7 March 1959. Seriously damaged by fire on 26 October 1966 off Vietnam; forward third of hangar deck level gutted.

All dates verified by the U.S. Navy Aircraft Carrier List, reference 1, U.S. Navy Historical Center, The Essex Class Aircraft Carriers and World Aircraft Carriers List (www.hazegray.org), with the exception that U.S. Navy Historical Center dates that differed from hazegray and others were referenced. There is no consistency in dates reported by Go Navy (http://www.gonavy.jp/CVf.html) or hazegray, while the latter reference was compiled in 2001and reference 1 was up dated in 2009. Go Navy’s accounting of SCB’ are not all the same as reference 1028, 1130 or hazegray. Recommissioned dates of hazegray are not all correct and dates of overhauls are themselves different with in complete dates of overhauls reported by the U.S. Navy. Therefore SCB’s overhauls duration are based on recommission dates while most carriers were decommissioned in reserve. Go Navy overhaul dates were referenced and verified with dates disclosed by the U.S. Navy when possible. Go Navy dates of overhauls and recommission are not all correct. Having worked on this project for years and after reviewing reference 1 2009 up dated history of U.S. Aircraft Carriers, its my contention that the Navy changed several dates of recommission and overhaul dates. Antietam (CVA-36), former CV-36 for example has no reported recommisioned date in 1952 but the history summary disclosed by the U.S. Navy of CV-36 reports the ship was reactivated on 6 December 1950, recommissioned on 17 January 1951, inactivated in April 1952 and reactivated in the summer of 1952, followed by overhaul at New York Naval Shipyard from September to December 1952. High lighted carriers in this chart are from hazegray, while the carriers high lighted in the content that follows this chart are from the U.S. Navy Historical Center, illustrating the difference in reported dates. The Essex Class Aircraft Carriers compilation of carriers that underwent SCB’s is upon review of all aforementioned references the most accurate and the author gives a detailed illustration of Essex Class Aircraft Carriers. The U.S. Navy Historical Center references 1028 and 1130 only disclose the year of a carriers SCB.

SCB-27 modernization – Modifications and conversion to an attack aircraft carrier - Ref. 1027

SCB-27 modernization of Essex/Ticonderoga class aircraft carriers, (CV 9-12, 14-16, 18-20, 31, 33-34, 38-39) (work completed between 1950 and 1955) – Ref. 1028

SCB-125A modernization Modifications and conversion that included a new angled flight deck and enclosed hurricane bow Ref. 1029

SCB-125 modernization of Essex/Ticonderoga class aircraft carriers, (CVA/CVS 9-12, 14-16, 18-20, 31, 33-34, & 38) - Modifications and conversion that included a hurricane bow and the installation of an angled flight deck, which permits the simultaneous launching, and recovery of aircraft. (work completed between 1955 and 1959) – Ref. 1130

Midway class aircraft carrier – Ref. 1131

Evolution of the Essex Class Aircraft Carriers – Ref. 1132

World Aircraft Carriers List: US Fleet Carriers, WWII Era – Ref. 1133

The Essex Class Aircraft Carriers – Ref. 1135

SCB-27 modernization of Essex/Ticonderoga class aircraft carriers, (CV 9-12, 14-16, 18-20, 31, 33-34, 38-39) (work completed between 1950 and 1955) – Ref. 1028

SCB-27C – Modifications and conversion that included the installation of an flight deck to increase her jet aircraft launching capability.

SCB 110AModifications and conversion include installation of three C-11-1 steam driven catapults, which were designed to accommodate the newer and heavier jet aircraft; angled deck, enclosed hurricane bow, Mk-7-Mod 2 arresting gear identical to that installed in the Forrestal-class carriers, relocation of the elevators and three new deck-edge elevators and new weapons elevators. In addition, electronics package was installed (Midway Class Carriers)

The United States Navy Yard, New York - better known as the Brooklyn Navy Yard or the New York Naval Shipyard (NYNSY) and Bremerton is home to Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and the Bremerton Annex of Naval Base Kitsap. Also referred to as the Bremerton Navy Yard and or Puget Sound Navy Yard, Bremerton, Washington in the early years. The San Francisco Naval Shipyard was a United States Navy shipyard in San Francisco, California, located on 638 acres (2.6 km²) of waterfront at Hunters Point in the southeast corner of the city. Originally, Hunters Point was a commercial shipyard established in 1870, consisting of two graving docks purchased and upbuilt in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century by the Union Iron Works company, later owned by the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Company and named Hunters Point Drydocks, located at Potrero Point.

 

Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding Newport News (NGSB-NN), formerly called Northrop Grumman Newport News (NGNN) or Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company (NNS&DD or simply NNS), was the largest privately-owned shipyard in the United States prior to being purchased by Northrop Grumman in 2001. NGSB-NN is one of two shipyards that produce and service all types of nuclear powered submarines (the other is the Electric Boat Corporation), and at present is the only shipyard that can build Ford-class supercarriers. NGSB-NN is also home to the largest crane in the western hemisphere. NGSB-NN is located in Newport News, Virginia, and often participates in projects with the Norfolk Naval Shipyard in Portsmouth, Virginia, also located adjacent to Hampton Roads.

 

The shipyard is a major employer not only for the lower Virginia Peninsula, but also portions of Hampton Roads south of the James River and the harbor, portions of the Middle Peninsula region, and even some northeastern counties of North Carolina.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newport_News_Shipbuilding

 

SCB-27 Modernization Ref. 1027

 

SCB-27, or "27-Charlie" was the United States Navy designation for a series of upgrades to the Essex class aircraft carriers (both the short-hull and long-hull (Ticonderoga) versions), conducted between 1947 and 1955. These upgrades were intended to allow the World War II-era carriers to operate jet aircraft” (Ref. 1027).

 

SCB-27 modernization of Essex/Ticonderoga class aircraft carriers, (CV 9-12, 14-16, 18-20, 31, 33-34, 38-39) (work completed between 1950 and 1955) – Ref. 1028

 

“Between 1947 and 1955, fifteen Essex and Ticonderoga class aircraft carriers were thoroughly modernized. The impending arrival of high-performance jet aircraft and nuclear-armed heavy attack bombers had rendered these still rather new ships almost incapable of executing their most vital missions, while the post-World War II financial climate precluded building replacements. Accordingly, a reconstruction program began in Fiscal Year 1948, with the incomplete Oriskany as the prototype. Two more ships were converted the next year, three in FY 1950 and then, with the the Cold War in full bloom, nine more Fiscal Years 1951 to 1953.

 

Designated SCB-27, the modernization was very extensive, requiring some two years for each carrier. To handle much heavier, faster aircraft, flight deck structure was massively reinforced. Stronger elevators, much more powerful catapults, and new arresting gear was installed. The original four twin 5"/38 gun mounts were removed. The new five-inch gun battery consisted of eight weapons, two on each quarter beside the flight deck. Twin 3"/50 gun mounts replaced the 40mm guns, offering much greater effectiveness through the use of proximity-fuzzed ammunition.

 

A distinctive new feature was a taller, shorter island. To better protect aircrews, ready rooms were moved to below the armored hangar deck, with a large escalator on the starboard side amidships to move airmen up to the flight deck. Internally, aviation gasoline storage was increased by nearly half and its pumping capacity enhanced. Also improved were electrical generating power, fire protection, and weapons stowage and handling facilities. All this added considerable weight: displacement increased by some twenty percent. Blisters were fitted to the hull sides to compensate, widening waterline beam by eight to ten feet. The ships also sat lower in the water, and maximum speed was slightly diminished.

 

The modernized ships came in two flavors, the first nine (SCB-27A) having a pair of H 8 hydraulic catapults, the most powerful available in the late '40s. The final six received the SCB-27C update, with much more potent steam catapults, one of two early 1950s British developments that greatly improved aircraft carrier potential. These six were somewhat heavier, and wider, than their sisters. While still in the shipyards, three of the SCB-27Cs were further modified under the SCB-125 project, receiving the second British concept, the angled flight deck, plus an enclosed "hurricane bow" and other improvements. These features were so valuable that they were soon back-fitted to all but one (Lake Champlain) of the other SCB-27 ships. The fourteen fully modernized units were the "journeymen" aviation ships of the late 1950s and 1960s, providing the Navy with much of its attack aircraft carrier (CVA) force and, ultimately, all its anti-submarine warfare support aircraft carriers (CVS)” (Ref. 1028).

 

“The SCB-27 modernization was very extensive, requiring some two years for each carrier. To handle the much heavier, faster aircraft of the early jet-era, the flight deck structure was significantly reinforced, able to support aircraft weighing up to 52,000 pounds (23,587 kg), namely the North American AJ Savage.

 

Stronger elevators, much more powerful catapults, and new Mk 5 arresting gear was installed. The aft elevator was relocated from the center of the flight deck to the port deck edge. The original four twin 5"/38 gun mounts were removed, clearing the flight deck of guns. The new five-inch gun battery consisted of eight weapons, two on each quarter beside the flight deck. Twin 3"/50 gun mounts replaced the 40mm guns, offering much greater effectiveness through the use of proximity fuzed ammunition” (Ref. 1027).

 

“The island was completely redesigned, made taller, but shorter in overall length with the removal of its gun mounts. In addition, the boiler uptakes were rebuilt and angled aft to accommodate a single radar and communications mast atop the island. To better protect aircrews, ready rooms were moved from the gallery deck to below the armored hangar deck, with a large escalator on the starboard side amidships to move flight crews up to the flight deck. Internally, aviation fuel capacity was increased to 300,000 US gallons (1,135,624 L) (a 50% increase) and its pumping capacity enhanced to 50 US gallons (189.3 L) per minute” (Ref. 1126 & 1027).

 

Fire fighting capabilities were enhanced through the addition of two emergency fire and splinter bulkheads to the hangar deck, a fog/foam firefighting system, improved water curtains and a cupronickel fire main. Also improved were electrical generating power, and weapons stowage and handling facilities. All this added considerable weight: displacement increased by some twenty percent. Blisters were fitted to the hull sides to compensate, widening waterline beam by eight to ten feet. The ships also sat lower in the water, and maximum speed was slightly reduced, to 31 knots” (Ref. 1027).

 

Essex/Ticonderoga class characteristics, as modified under project SCB-27A: - Ref. 1028

 

·  Displacement: 40,600 tons (full load)

·  Dimensions: 898' (length overall); 101' 4" (hull); 151' 11" (over flight deck and projections)

·  Propulsion: 150,000 horsepower, steam turbines, four propellers, 31.7 knot maximum speed

·  Aircraft ("ultimate" planned 1958 complement): 72 planes, including 24 15,000 pound interceptors, 24 30,000 pound escort fighters and 24 30,000 pound attack bombers. The actual aircraft complement carried was quite different.

·  Gun Armament: eight 5"/38 guns in single mountings plus fourteen twin 3"/50 gun mounts. From the mid-1950s onward, gun armament was rapidly reduced.

 

SCB-27A - The first Essex class modernization program was carried out on Essex (CV-9), Yorktown (CV-10), Hornet (CV-12), Randolph (CV-15), Wasp (CV-18), Bennington (CV-20), Kearsarge (CV-33) and Lake Champlain (CV-39) between 1948 and 1953. Oriskany (CV-34) was completed to SCB-27A standard in 1950. The principal features of SCB-27A included:

 

1. Removal of the side belt armor and replacing it with a hull blister which increased the beam at the waterline to 101 feet.

2. Removal of the island twin 5-inch turrets and relocation of the new open 5-inch mounts to the starboard side along the edge of the flight deck.

3. Modifications to the Island which replaced the tripod mast with a single pole mast and redesigned smokestack.

4. Strengthening the flight deck in the landing area.

5. Installation of larger and more powerful elevators.

6. Replacement of the H-4-1 Hydraulic catapults with H-8 Hydraulic catapults capable of launching aircraft up to 40,000 pounds gross weight.

7. More powerful bomb and ammunition elevators.

8. Equipment for the handling of Jet aircraft, including jet blast deflectors behind the catapults.

9. Increased aviation fuel capacity.

10. Installation of higher capacity aircraft cranes.

11. Three ready rooms relocated below the hanger deck.

12. Installation of an escalator along the starboard side of the island for aircrew to reach the flight deck.

13. Division of the hanger deck space by two fireproof steel doors” (Ref. 1135).

 

SCB-27C Modernization

 

“The SCB-27C program was a further refinement of the SCB-27A program. The SCB-27C ships fall into two groups:

The first Group (
Intrepid (CV-11), Ticonderoga (CV-14), and Hancock (CV-19)) received the basic SCB-27C modifications between 1951 and 1954.

The second group (
Lexington (CVA-16), Bon Homme Richard (CVA-31), and Shangri-La (CVA-38)) received an advanced SCB-27C that included most of the features of the later SCB-125 program. The principal features of the basic SCB-27C that differed from the SCB-27A included:

 

1. A revised hull blister which increased the waterline beam to 103 feet.

2. Installation of two C-11 steam catapults. Strengthening the flight deck.

3. Replacement of the number three elevator with a starboard side deck edge unit (this required moving the starboard side open 5-inch guns further aft to a position opposite the port side guns)

4. Installation of a stronger arresting gear system” (Ref. 1135).

 

Modification sub-types

 

“The two sub-types of SCB-27 modifications were primarily a result of changes in catapult technology in the early-1950s. SCB-27A vessels utilized a pair of H 8 slotted-tube hydraulic catapults, while the later SCB-27C vessels were fitted with a pair of C 11 steam catapults, a British innovation. To accommodate the catapult machinery, the SCB-27C vessels were slightly wider abeam and heavier than their SCB-27A sisters. Additionally, the SBC-27C carriers were equipped with jet blast deflectors, deck cooling, fuel blending facilities, emergency recovery barrier and storage and handling for nuclear weapons, which was not included in all of the SCB-27A carriers. On SCB-27C the new port deck edge elevator was located further aft than on SCB-27A ships” (Ref. 1126 & 1027).

 

USS Oriskany (CV-34), laid-up incomplete at the conclusion of World War II, served as the prototype and was re-ordered to the SCB-27A standard. All of the SCB-27 modernized Essex carriers, save USS Lake Champlain (CV-39), were further modified, under the SCB-125 modernization program” (Ref. 1027).

 

Essex/Ticonderoga class Aircraft Carriers that underwent SCB-27A and SCB-27C:

 

·Oriskany (CV-34). Built by the New York Naval Shipyard. Reordered to the SCB-27A design.

·Essex (CV-9). Reconstructed to SCB-27A design by the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard.

·Wasp (CV-18). Reconstructed to SCB-27A design by the New York Naval Shipyard.

·Kearsarge (CV-33). Reconstructed to SCB-27A design by the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard.

·Lake Champlain (CV-39). Reconstructed to SCB-27A design by the Norfolk Naval Shipyard.

·Bennington (CV-20). Reconstructed to SCB-27A design by the New York Naval Shipyard.

·Yorktown (CV-10). Reconstructed to SCB-27A design by the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard.

·Randolph (CV-15). Reconstructed to SCB-27A design by the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co.

·Hornet (CV-12). Reconstructed to SCB-27A design by the New York Naval Shipyard.

·Hancock (CV-19). Reconstructed to SCB-27C design by the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard.

·Intrepid (CV-11). Reconstructed to SCB-27C design by the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co.

·Ticonderoga (CV-14). Reconstructed to SCB-27C design by the New York Naval Shipyard.

 

SCB-125A Modernization – Ref. 1029

 

SCB-125 was the United States Navy designation for a series of upgrades to the Essex class of aircraft carriers (both short-hull and long-hull (Ticonderoga-sub-class)), conducted between 1954 and 1959. These upgrades included the addition of an angled flight deck and other enhancements aimed at improving flight operations and seakeeping.

 

The SCB-125 upgrade program was first applied to the final three Essex-class carriers to undergo the SCB-27C modernization while they were still in the midst of their original refit.

 

Despite the drastic reconstruction of the carriers, the original SCB-27A vessels, which were fitted with a pair of H 8 hydraulic catapults, were not upgraded with the C 11 steam catapults fitted to their SCB-27C sister ships due to machinery space limitations.

 

USS Oriskany (CV-34), laid-up incomplete at the conclusion of World War II, served as the prototype and was re-ordered to the SCB-27A standard. All of the SCB-27 modernized Essex carriers, save USS Lake Champlain (CV-39), were further modified, under the SCB-125 modernization program” (Ref. 1029).

 

SCB-125 modernization of Essex/Ticonderoga class aircraft carriers, (CVA/CVS 9-12, 14-16, 18-20, 31, 33-34, & 38) (work completed between 1955 and 1959) – Ref. 1130

 

“Between 1954 and 1959, fourteen modernized Essex and Ticonderoga class aircraft carriers of the SCB-27 type were further updated under the SCB-125 program. This work, incorporating new features not known or accepted when the earlier scheme was originated in the later 1940s, greatly enhanced sea keeping and high-performance aircraft operations. Perhaps the most significant new attribute was the British-developed "angled flight deck", in which the carrier's aircraft landing area was slanted several degrees off to port, enabling aircraft to easily "go around" in the event of recovery difficulties. The benefits this brought to carrier aviation operating safety can hardly be overemphasized.

 

Another notable SCB-125 alteration included moving the after aircraft elevator from the centerline to the starboard deck edge, greatly facilitating aircraft handling. In fact, this change had already been made on the last six of the SCB-27s, the steam-catapult SCB-27C type, the final three of which received both modernization schemes in the same shipyard session. Blending the flight deck's forward end into the upper hull form, creating the so-called "hurricane" bow, constituted the final significant change. This concept, already adopted for the Forrestal class "super carriers" then under construction, improved seakeeping in rough seas. It also provided a covered location for the carriers' secondary conning station, whose portholes, visible across the upper bow plating, were a distinctive feature of the refitted ships.

 

Though the SCB-125 program significantly changed the ships' appearance, the scope of the work was much less than that of SCB-27 and generally took seven or eight months' shipyard time, rather than the two years or more that was typical of the earlier modernization. The exception was Oriskany, the SCB-27 prototype and the last to get the SCB-125 treatment. Uniquely, she had her hydraulic catapults replaced with more powerful steam types and received many other improvements in a reconstruction that lasted twenty-eight months in 1957-59.

 

As quickly as new carriers and steam catapult conversions joined the fleet during the later '50s, the seven SCB-125 hydraulic catapult ships were reassigned to the anti-submarine mission, replacing unmodernized carriers. Four of the seven steam catapult carriers also became ASW ships during the 1960s, though some of these operated very little, if at all, in that role. Most of the ASW ships received SQS-23 long-range sonars in 1960-66.

 

Nine ships left active service in 1969-71, as major reductions in fleet strength were implemented. Three more decommissioned in 1972-74. Hancock and Oriskany lasted into the middle-'70s, and the veteran Lexington remained operational as training carrier until 1991. All four of the Essex class museum ships are of the modernized SCB-27/SCB-125 configuration” (Ref. 1130).

 

The SCB-125 program involved the further rebuilding of fourteen ships, as listed below in the order of the completion of this work:

 

SCB-125 introduced the angled deck and enclosed "Hurricane" bow to the Essex class. Three groups were covered by SCB-125.

 

The first (CV-16, CV-31, and CV-38) received both their SCB-27C and SCB-125 modifications in one dockyard period between 1951 and 1955.

The second group (
CV-11, CV-14, and CV-19) included those SCB-27C ships brought up to SCB-125 standards during a later dockyard period between 1955 and 1957.  These ships were also given longer (70-feet 3-inches) forward centerline elevators.

 

The third group (CV-9, CV-10, CV-12, CV-15, CV-18, CV-20, and CV-33) including SCB-27A ships which did not get all the features that the SCB-27C ships did. CV-39 was the only SCB-27A ship that did not get the SCB-125 modernization. CV-34 is covered under the SCB-125A program.

 

Apart from the hurricane bow and angled deck, the principal features of the SCB-125 included:

 

1. Installation of the improved Mark 7 dual arrestor wire system with half the cross-deck pendants of the previous systems.

2. Introduction of air conditioning in some spaces. Strengthening of the crash barriers.

3. Primary flight control (Prifly) was moved to the aft edge of the island, two decks high.

4. Better soundproofing of the island.

5. Improved deck lighting” (Ref. 1135).

 

(Antietam's angled deck installation was not considered part of the SCB-125 modernization program.)

 

Essex/Ticonderoga class characteristics, as modified under project SCB-125 with steam catapults:

 

·Displacement: 43,060 tons (full load)

·Dimensions: 894' 6" (length overall); 103' (hull); 166' 10" (over flight deck and projections)

·Propulsion: 150,000 horsepower, steam turbines, four propellers, 30.7 knot maximum speed

·Attack Carrier Aircraft: Approximately 70 aircraft, including five squadrons of fighters and attack planes, and small detachments of heavy attack, airborne early warning and reconnaissance planes;

·Anti-submarine Support Carrier Aircraft: Approximately 50 aircraft, including two squadrons of S2F fixed-wing aircraft, one squadron of helicopters and small detachments of airborne early warning and (in the 1960s) fighters.

·Gun Armament: eight 5"/38 guns in single mountings plus a few twin 3"/50 gun mounts. From the mid-1950s onward, gun armament was steadily reduced to compensate for growing weights of topside equipment and embarked aircraft.

 

Essex/Ticonderoga class Aircraft Carriers that underwent SCB-125:

 

·Shangri-La (CVA/CVS-38) - Received SCB-125 concurrently with SCB-27C with steam catapults.

·Lexington (CVA/CVS/CVT/AVT-16) - Received SCB-125 concurrently with SCB-27C with steam catapults.

·Bon Homme Richard (CVA-31) - Received SCB-125 concurrently with SCB-27C with steam catapults.

·Bennington (CVA/CVS-20) - Hydraulic catapults. Received SCB-125 refit.

·Yorktown (CVA/CVS-10) - Hydraulic catapults. Received SCB-125 refit.

·Wasp (CVA/CVS-18) - Hydraulic catapults. Received SCB-125 refit.

·Randolph (CVA/CVS-15) - Hydraulic catapults. Received SCB-125 refit.

·Essex (CVA/CVS-9) - Hydraulic catapults. Received SCB-125 refit.

·Hornet (CVA/CVS-12) - Hydraulic catapults. Received SCB-125 refit.

·Hancock (CVA-19) - Steam catapults. Received SCB-125 refit.

·Kearsarge (CVA/CVS-33) - Hydraulic catapults. Received SCB-125 refit.

·Ticonderoga (CVA/CVS-14) - Steam catapults. Received SCB-125 refit.

·Intrepid (CVA/CVS-11) - Steam catapults. Received SCB-125 refit.

·Oriskany (CVA/CV-34) - Received SCB-125A refit, replacing hydraulic with steam catapults.

 

SCB-125A Modernization

 

“This SCB-125A modernization was a one-of-a-kind effort that brought the Oriskany (CVA/CV-34) up to full SCB-27C and SCB-125 standard. CV-34 was the last ship to receive the SCB-27C modernization (1959) and many features were improved over the older SCB-27C ships. Besides the angled deck, hurricane bow, C-11 steam catapults, and lengthened centerline elevator, CV-34 had a light metal cladding for the flight deck and an arresting gear system that was stronger then on the older SCB-27C ships” (Ref. 1135).

 

The SCB-125 upgrade program was first applied to the final three Essex-class carriers to undergo the SCB-27C modernization while they were still in the midst of their original refit. Despite the drastic reconstruction of the carriers, the original SCB-27A vessels, which were fitted with a pair of H 8 hydraulic catapults, were not upgraded with the C 11 steam catapults fitted to their SCB-27C sister ships due to machinery space limitations.

 

SCB 110, SCB 110A, SCB 101 Modernization

 

Midway class – Ref. 1131

 

“The Midway class aircraft carrier was one of the longest lived carrier designs in history. First commissioned in late 1945, the lead ship of the class, USS Midway was not decommissioned until 1992, shortly after seeing service in the Gulf War.

 

The CVB-41 class vessels (then unnamed) were originally conceived in 1940 as a design study to determine the effect of including an armored flight deck on a carrier the size of the Essex class. The resulting calculations showed that the effect would be disastrous for air group size. The resulting ship would have a maximum air group of 45, compared to 90–100 for the standard Essex class fleet carriers. As a result, the concept went to finding a larger carrier which could support both deck armor and a sufficiently large air group. Unlike the Royal Navy's aircraft carriers, for which the armored deck was part of the ship structure, the Midway class retained their "strength deck" at the hangar deck level and the armored flight deck was part of the superstructure. The weight-savings needed to armor the flight deck was acquired by removing a planned cruiser-caliber battery of 8-inch (203 mm) guns and reducing the 5-inch antiaircraft battery from dual to single mounts. They would be the last USN carriers to be so designed; the titanic size of the Forrestal class supercarriers would require the strength deck to be located at flight deck level.

 

The resulting carriers were very large, with the ability to accommodate more planes than any other carrier in the U.S. fleet (30–40 more aircraft than the Essex class). In their original configuration, the Midway class ships had an air wing of almost 130 aircraft. Unfortunately, it was soon realized that so many planes was beyond the effective command and control ability of one ship. While the resulting ships featured excellent protection and unprecedented air wing size, they also had several undesirable characteristics. Internally, the ships were very cramped and crowded. Freeboard was unusually low for such large carriers. In heavy seas, they shipped large amounts of water (only partially mitigated by the fitting of a hurricane bow during the SCB-110/110A upgrades) and corkscrewed in a manner that hampered landing operations. None of the class went on war cruises during the Korean War. They were mainly deployed to the Atlantic and Mediterranean. During the 1950s, all three ships underwent the SCB-110 modernization program, which added angled decks, steam catapults, mirror landing systems, and other modifications that allowed them to operate a new breed of large, heavy naval jets” (Ref. 1131).

 

SCB 110A - Modifications and conversion include installation of three C-11-1 steam driven catapults, which were designed to accommodate the newer and heavier jet aircraft; angled deck, enclosed hurricane bow, Mk-7-Mod 2 arresting gear identical to that installed in the Forrestal-class carriers, relocation of the elevators and three new deck-edge elevators and new weapons elevators. In addition, electronics package was installed (Midway Class Carriers).

 

Midway class large fleet aircraft carriers - Ref. 1 and 1A and 1134


Displacement: 45,000 tons originally - 62,000 tons full load
Dimensions: 900 x 113 x 32.75 feet/274.3 x 34.4 x 10 meters
Extreme Dimensions: 968 x 136 x 32.75 feet/295 x 41.5 x 10 meters
Propulsion: Steam turbines, 12 565 psi boilers, four geared steam turbines and four shafts,

212,000 shaft horsepower
Flight Deck Width: 238 feet

Speed: 30-plus knots

Crew: 3,583 (as planned in 1943, was over 4000 by completion)
Armor: 3.5 inch flight deck, 7.6 inch belt
Armament: 18 single 5/54, 21 dual 40 mm AA, 28 single 20 mm AA (as planned)
Aircraft: Approximately 65 - 137 at various times

Complement: 2,533 ship's company; 2,239 in air wing

Concept/Program: These ships were a new, much larger design intended to correct certain problems in the Essex class design. They had armored flight decks, requiring a much larger hull and lower freeboard, to reduce top weight. They also carried a very heavy AA battery of 5/54 weapons. The armor requirement was originally meant to counter 8" cruiser gunfire, but by the time the ships were laid down the focus had shifted to defending against aircraft attack. The ships entered service soon after WWII. In their early years they were the only ships capable of operating nuclear strike aircraft.

Design: An all-new design. These ships were very wet, very crowded and quite complex; these problems were never solved. The design made them difficult and expensive to modernize or upgrade. In later years these ships were limited by low freeboard, severe crowding of crew and equipment, low hangar clearances, poor sea keeping and extreme age; they were unable to operate the latest and largest aircraft. Overall they must be considered to be a less than satisfactory design, but they had long service lives because of the urgent need for large carriers.

Variations: Configurations varied as completed; only Midway was completed to the original design. Roosevelt and especially Coral Sea carried fewer guns at completion. There were major differences following the 1950's reconstructions.

Modifications: All ships had their gun batteries gradually reduced over time. All ships were upgraded in 1947-48 with strengthened flight decks, 10 dual 3/50 AA fitted in place of 40 mm guns, facilities for nuclear weapons, and other improvements. Continual updating of electronics outfit.

Modernization: Underwent major reconstructions during the 1950's, but no two ships were reconstructed to the same standard. These rebuilds were the equivalent of the SCB 27C/125 reconstructions in the Essex class.

SCB 110: (Midway & Roosevelt) First reconstruction applied to this class, generally equivalent to the SCB 27C/125 combination. Additions included an angled deck, new catapults and arresting gear and a new electronics outfit; the gun battery was reduced and general improvements were carried out. Displacement was approximately 63,500 tons.

SCB 110A: (Coral Sea) A more extensive version of the SCB 110 applied to the other ships of the class. Aviation features and electronics were further improved, and gun battery was further reduced.

SCB 101: (Midway) A second reconstruction meant to be applied to all ships, to upgrade them beyond the SCB 110/110A configuration. This reconstruction included a longer flight deck, new catapults, and general all-around improvements. Due to the cost of this work, only one ship was upgraded under this program.

After SCB 110A Coral Sea was the most capable of the ships, but Midway surpassed her with the SCB 101 reconstruction. In addition to the SCB reconstructions, each ship received at least one major overhaul/upgrade, the details of which varied.

Classification: Initially classified as CV, but changed to CVB prior to completion, and CVA postwar. Returned to CV classification in 1975 when modified to operate ASW aircraft.

Operational: Saw extensive service as tactical and strategic platforms. Operational lives continually extended due to force level build-ups and lack of replacements.

 

Prior to decommission:

 

Armament: Sea Sparrow missiles; 3 Phalanx CIWS 20mm mounts

Combat Systems: SPS-48C 3-D Air Search Radar;

SPS-49 Air Search Radar and SPS-65

Navigation Radar: 2 Mk115 Fire Control; WLR- 1 ESMWLR-10; and ESMWLR-11 ESM

 

Departure from Service/Disposal: Roosevelt was in poor condition when she was discarded in 1977. Others remained in service long pasts their intended retirement dates. Coral Sea replaced and retired in 1990; Midway retired without replacement in 1992, due to force reductions.

 

SCB-144 Modernization

 

ASW Package - Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) Support Carrier conversion - listed under U.S. Aircraft Carriers Classifications & Duty-Past within this web site:

 

U.S. AIRCRAFT CARRIERS REDESIGNATED ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE (ASW) Carrier (CVS)

 

SCB-144 was part of the Navy Fleet Rehabilitation and Modernization (FRAM) II program intended to improve the ASW capability of the SCB-27A CVS carriers. All of the SCB-144 modernizations were completed by 1965. The principal modifications included:

 

1. Installation of the SQS-23 bow-mounted sonar dome.

2. Installation of a stem hawsepipe and bow anchor.

3. Modifications to the Combat Information Center” (Ref. 1135).

 

U. S. Aircraft Carriers participating in Service Life Extension Program SLEP), designed to extend the life of U. S. aircraft carriers (1980 to 1993)

 

AIRCRAFT CARRIER

COMM

FROM

TO

sixth Saratoga (CV-60), former CVA-60 & CVB-60

at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Naval Shipyard

14/04/56(C)

01/10//80

03/02/83

Forrestal (CV-59), former CVA-59

Underwent a 28-month, $550-million modernization and overhaul program, designed to extend the life of U.S. aircraft carriers another 15 to 20 years at Philadelphia Naval Shipyard

01/10/55(C)

18/01/83

20/05/85

fifth Independence (CV-62), former CVA-62 - Underwent a modernization and overhaul program to extend her service life by 15 years at Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, completing the Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) at

Philadelphia Naval Shipyard Yard on 6 June 1988 at approximately 1500, the mooring lines were cast away for the last time from Pier 6, beginning her journey down the Delaware River, three years later at a cost of 700 million, and countless man-hours, and headed to Norfolk, Virginia; arriving at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard in April 1985, she underwent a modernization and overhaul program to extend her service life by 15 years.

10/01/59(C)

17/02/85

06/06/88

The flight deck was improved to allow the recovery of high-performance aircraft while the ship traveled at slower speeds, and the NATO Sea Sparrow launchers were upgraded. Other improvements improved the ship's fuel consumption. Essentially a rebuilding from the keel up, SLEEP modernized every space on the ship. All living areas, control stations, and support facilities were up dated. Every light, speaker, and switch was reworked. Each combat system was evaluated and modified to make them the best the Navy has. The bottom line of SLEP’s three years is that shipyard workers and Indy’s crew cooperated to truly make “Freedom’s Flagship” the newest old ship in the world. It was fitting that Independence should be rejuvenated in Philadelphia, home of the Revolutionary War's "Liberty Bell", the symbol of liberty and freedom worldwide.

second Kitty Hawk (CV-63), former CVA-63

at Philadelphia Naval Shipyard

29/04/61(C)

01/10/

29/03/90

third Constellation (CV-64), former CVA-64 - In February 1990, Constellation left San Diego, returning to the east coast for a three-year overhaul, entering Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Pa. via Norfolk, Va. to begin SLEP; ending her home port transfer steaming from San Diego, Calif. to South Pacific via Cape Horn through the South Atlantic at Norfolk, Va. Constellation completed a $800-million, three-year Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) on 3 March 1993, the fifth and last carrier to complete SLEP, which was a cross between new construction and a comprehensive overhaul, designed to add 15 years to the carrier’s operational life. The overhaul saw upgrades to virtually every system on the ship; entering Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Pa., in July 1990 to begin a $800-million, three-year SLEP. The $800-million SLEP added an estimated 15 years to the carrier's operational life. The overhaul saw upgrades to virtually every system on the ship. Constellation departed the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard 4 March 1993, the fifth and last carrier to complete SLEP, which was a cross between new construction and a comprehensive overhaul. The overhaul saw upgrades to virtually every system on the ship.

27/10/61(C)

Feb 1990

04/03/93

 

U.S. Aircraft Carriers participating in Complex Overhaul (COH) and or Refueling and Complex Overhaul (RCOH)) - 1964 to Present

 

AIRCRAFT CARRIER

COMM

FROM

TO

eighth Enterprise (CVA(N)-65) – Pre-Overhaul Availability from 3 October to 2 November 1964, receiving her “second successive” Battle Readiness Pennant, as well as repeated “E” awards for her Air, Engineering and Reactor and Weapons Departments, on 9 October. Shifted from her anchorage at Hampton Roads up the James River to Newport News Shipbuilding Company, Newport News, Virginia for her first Refueling and Overhaul (ROH) on 2 November 1964.

25/11/61(C)

 

03/10/64

02/11/64

 

eighth Enterprise (CVN-65), former CVA(N)-65 – Shifted from her anchorage at Hampton Roads up the James River to Newport News Shipbuilding Company, Newport News, Virginia for her first Refueling and Overhaul (ROH) on 2 November 1964.

 25/11/61

02/11/64

 

22/06/65

seventh Ranger (CVA-61) – COH at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard

10/08/57(C)

30/09/66

30/05/67

fifth Independence (CV-62) – Complex Overhaul (COH) at Norfolk Naval Shipyard in Portsmouth, Virginia

10/01/59

Feb 1967

Nov 1967

eighth Enterprise (CVN-65), former CVA(N)-65 – RCOH – Departed Alameda, California and steamed to Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corp., Newport News, Virginia for her Second Refueling and then returned to the west coast. Departed Pier 2 on 11 October 1969, proceeding down the Elizabeth River for Sea Trials on 16 January 1971.

 25/11/61

22/08/69

20/01/71

third Constellation (CVA-64) – DSRA at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, Washington

27/10/61(C)

08/05/70

Dec 1970

Kitty Hawk (CV-63), former CVA-63 – COH

Entered dry dock at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in Bremerton, Wash.

 29/04/61

08/03/76

01/04/77

seventh Ranger (CV-61), former CVA-61 – Dry docked for a COH at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard

10/08/57(C)

09/02/77

Mar. 1978

eighth Enterprise (CVN-65), former CVA(N)-65 – COH at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, departing for Operation Southwest Passage, the return to NAS Alameda, California

25/11/61

11/01/79

08/02/82

third Constellation (CV/CVA-64) – 14-month Complex Overhaul (COH) at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Wash. to allow the carrier to operate the new F/A-18AI

27/10/61(C)

 

Dec 1982

Feb 1984

Nimitz (CVN-68), former (CVA(N)-68 – COH at Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corp., Newport News, Virginia

03/05/75

17/06/83

22/07/84

Coral Sea (CV-43), former CVB-43 & CV-42 – COH at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Wash.

01/10/47

 

17/10/83

18/01/85

Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69), former CVA(N)-69 – COH at Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corp., Newport News, Virginia

18/10/77

26/10/85

26/04/87

Carl Vinson (CVN-70) – COH at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, Wash.

13/03/82

22/09/90

06/04/93

eighth Enterprise (CVN-65), former CVA(N)-65 – RCOH - additional updates required through 1995 at Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corp., Newport News, Virginia

25/11/61

12/10/90

23/09/94

Forrestal  (CV-59), former CVA-59 – A 14-month COH at Philadelphia Naval Shipyard

01/10/55

 

14/09/92

14 est. 11/93

John F. Kennedy (CV-67), former CVA-67 – COH at Philadelphia Naval Shipyard

07/09/68

13/09/93

13/09/95

Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69), former CVA(N)-69 – COH (Drydock No. 11) at Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corp., Newport News, Virginia

18/10/77

11/10/95

26/01/97

second Kitty Hawk (CV-63), former CVA-63 – Phase 1, FY 97 – A $110 million project COH at Naval Air Station, North Island, San Diego, California & Phase 2, FY 97 COH at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, Washington, including three months in dry dock in Bremerton

29/04/61

21/05/97 to 15/12/97

01/01/95 to Mar. 1998

Nimitz (CVN-68), former (CVA(N)-68) – RCOH at Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corp., Newport News, Virginia

03/05/75

26/05/98

28/06/01

Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69), former CVA(N)-69 – RCOH at Northrop Grumman Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corp., Newport News, Virginia - a 36-month $2.5 billion

18/10/77

22/05/01

25/03/05

Carl Vinson (CVN-70) – RCOH

at Northrop Grumman Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corp., Newport News, Virginia

13/03/92

11/11/05

11/07/09

Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) – RCOH at Northrop Grumman Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corp., Newport News, Virginia - 2009 - RCOH. Commenced a shipboard coordinated off-load and outfitting plan (SCOOP) at Naval Station Norfolk June 15, preceded by off-loading ammunition off the coast of Virginia from 18 to 21 May 2009 in preparation of ROCH

25/10/86

29/08/09

29/08/13

Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) – RCOH at Northrop Grumman Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corp., Newport News, Virginia (Huntington Ingalls) Shipbuilding Newport News (NGSB-NN)  / Moved  to Drydock 11

11/11/89

28/03/13 to

 

 

USS George Washington (CVN-73) – RCOH at Northrop Grumman Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corp., Newport News, Virginia (Huntington Ingalls) Shipbuilding Newport News (NGSB-NN)

04/07/92

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In the United States nuclear Navy, Refueling and Overhaul (ROH/ RCOH) refers to a lengthy process or procedure performed on nuclear-powered Naval ships, which involves replacement of expended nuclear fuel with new fuel and a general maintenance fix-up and often modernization of the entire ship. In theory, such a process could simply involve only refueling or only an overhaul, but nuclear refueling is usually combined with an overhaul. An ROH usually takes a year to two years or longer to perform at a Naval shipyard. Time periods between ROH's on a ship have varied historically from about 5-20 years (for submarines) to up to 25 years (for Nimitz-class aircraft carriers). For modern submarines and aircraft carriers, ROH's are typically carried out about midway through their operating lifespan. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refueling_and_overhaul

Nimitz made the move across the James River to Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company, for a Complex Overhaul (COH) on 17 June 1983. USS America (CV-66) provided a team to assist Nimitz’s crew with their overhaul from 1 to 30 April 1984. Nimitz ended a Complex Overhaul (COH) on 22 July 1984, conducted from 17 June 1983 to 22 July 1984, the first such refit for a Nimitz-class ship. The ship remained drydocked at Shipway 11 from 17 June–3 December, after which she was towed to the company’s Pier 2. USS America (CV-66) provided a team to assist Nimitz’s crew with their overhaul from 1 to 30 April 1984. Nimitz remained at Pier 2 until 23 July 1984. The crew lived on board General William O. Darby (IX-510) from 22 July 1983 to 20 June 1984. The Navy attempted to provide for the crew and their dependents during the difficult overhaul, and christened a 220 foot barge Nimitz Park, positioned alongside General William O. Darby from 3 October 1983. Nimitz Park boasted eight laser sailboats, a picnic area and a fishing facility. Complex Overhaul, installations: Two RIM-7H5 Basic Point Defense Missile System (BPDMS) NATO Sea Sparrow; three Mk 15 Mod 1 Phalanx Close-In Weapon System (CIWS). Developed in response to the ongoing threat poised by sea-skimmer and anti-ship cruise missiles, CIWS was a last-ditch “fast-reaction” defense system against those missiles, combining on a single mount fire control radars and a six barrel M61A1 Vulcan (Gatling) gun firing tungsten alloy projectiles at a rate of up to 4,500 rounds per minute. During initial test firings Nimitz’s CIWS gunners savaged the target, leaving only the swivel connecting to the tow cable; Flag Data Display System and new NTDS (both of which they actually completed installing during Navy sea trials. Nimitz made the move across the James River from Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company upon completion of Complex Overhaul (COH) on 23 July 1984, for post-overhaul contractor’s Sea Trials; returning to Norfolk, Va. on 26 July 1984, conducting post-overhaul contractor’s Sea Trials from 23 to 26 July 1984, conducting a COH from 17 June 1983 to 22 July 1984, the first such refit for a Nimitz-class ship. Nimitz accomplished her first McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A Mode I Automatic Carrier Landing System certification on 30 September 1984. Nimitz returned to Norfolk, Va. in October 1984, conducting Shakedown Training in the Cuban Operating Area from 27 to 28 September 1984 after departing her home port in late September 1984.

eighth Enterprise (CVN-65), former CVA(N)-65 – RCOH (12/10/90 to 23/09/94) - additional updates required through 1995 at Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corp., Newport News, Virginia. Departed Norfolk, Virginia, and moved to Newport News Shipbuilding Company, Newport News, Virginia for her third refueling and the Navy's largest complex overhaul ever attempted (RCOH). Enterprise completed her Refueling and Complex Overhaul (RCOH) and the Navy's largest complex overhaul ever attempted 23 September 1994 at Newport News Shipbuilding Company, Newport News, Virginia; shifted berths from Norfolk, Virginia, moving over to Newport News Shipbuilding Company, Newport News, Virginia for her third refueling, 18 days ahead of schedule to avoid Hurricane Lili, on 12 October 1990 commencing RCOH the same day. Most of the crew of Enterprise (CVN-65) onloaded Floating Accommodation Facility (FAF), a $20 million barge fitted with berthing, galleys, office space and medical facilities (1–5 November 1990), cutting the ribbon establishing FAF during a ceremony on the 8th. During a reception at The Mariner’s Museum, Hampton, Va., sponsored by the local Chamber of Commerce, the day was declared “Enterprise Day” by the mayors of Newport News and Hampton, on 14 November. Also in November, Enterprise sent six deck department petty officers to the amphibious assault ship Tarawa (LHA-1) for six months in support of Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. On 17 March 1991, FAF was moved to Slipway 10, positioned next to Enterprise “in support of the Complex Overhaul/Refueling. During 1992, Enterprise sent men from the air department to operational carriers, where “senior personnel honed their ABH skills,” and undesignated airmen were introduced to the “challenges” of working on a dangerous flight deck. Two detachments went to USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) in March and May, three to USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) in June, September and November, and one each to USS George Washington (CVN-73) and USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) in October and USS Merrimac (AO-179). Enterprise was transferred to AirLant on 1 October 1992. Enterprise was towed from Dry Dock No. 11 to Pier 2, both at Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Co., on 14 December 1992. She was followed by FAF, which shifted berths from Dry Dock No. 10 to Pier 2, across from the carrier, three days later. During the overhaul, V-1 and V-3 divisions were combined until August 1993, when the hangar bay division was re-activated aboard Enterprise. Her crew performed an “overhaul and replacement” of the flight deck and hangar bay aircraft engine starting stations in four months, eight months less than the shipyard estimate, saving over $200,000. They also “rewired and overhauled” the flight deck lighting system on their own, saving over $70,000 when compared to the shipyard bid. New CIWS Block 1 “low-profile” gun mounts 23 and 24 were installed aboard Enterprise, and both MK 57 Mod 3 NATO Sea Sparrow systems were refurbished by Raytheon Co., Virginia Beach, Va. In 1993, Combat Systems Fire Control Division was re-activated as an Operations Division. The AN/SPN-46 ACLS Radar, “the new final approach radar,” was installed, and additional systems overhauled were the AN/SPS-64 Navigation, AN/SPS-67 Surface Search, AN/SPS-49 Air Search, AN/SPS-43 Marshalling and AN/SPS-48C 3D Radars. These were the principal radar systems with which she operated into the 21st Century. To better enable the OI division to prepare for returning Enterprise to her natural element, the open sea, sailors of that division combined with those of the navigation department for two small cruises with the Naval Academy’s self-propeller patrol craft (YPs), building shiphandling, radar and visual navigation skills. During one such trip in March 1993, the craft was navigated from Annapolis harbor down Chesapeake Bay to NB Norfolk, making daily trips from there out to sea. One of the most important changes to Enterprise’s capabilities since commissioning was the installation of a Local Area Network (LAN), involving the running of “thousands of feet” of cable, both coaxial and fiber optic. A “very labor intensive project,” departments relocated from FAF to the ship, then moved from space to space within her.  In addition, SITE 501 CCTV cable was distributed throughout the ship, and the Navy Standard Teletype (NST) was installed in the main Communications Center. Installing the CCTV system included over 50,000 feet of cable and more than 1,000 television cable “drops,” as well as 450 new television sets, enhancing the ship’s ability to hold training. Also overhauled was the AN/UQC-1 Underwater Telephone System. A valve barge was moored near Enterprise, playing “a vital role in the overhaul.” Following the collapse of the East Bloc and the corresponding lessoning of Cold War tensions, however, Congress issued a mandate for the Navy to “drawdown,” or reduce its force. All four catapults were overhauled aboard Enterprise, while improvements made to the flight deck included the fabrication and installation of all 194 flight deck safety nets, as well as the application of non-skid, covering 194,332 square feet of the flight deck, the latter between May to September 1994. In 1994, Enterprise offered “Early Out,” a fleet-wide program allowing service members to terminate their active duty commitment, nearly 20% of the crew taking advantage of the program, with approving authority given by the commanding officer. The crew made a “herculean effort” to complete her yard period, which ended on 27 September 1994. Enterprise returned to sea 27 September 1994, conducting sea trials, including a four-hour full power run, over the succeeding three days, before returning to Norfolk on 30 September 1994., having completed her third refueling and the Navy's largest complex overhaul ever attempted at Newport News Shipbuilding Company, Newport News, Virginia (12 October 1990 to 23 September 1994). Enterprise completed her Refueling and Complex Overhaul (RCOH) and the Navy's largest complex overhaul ever attempted 23 September 1994 at Newport News Shipbuilding Company, Newport News, Virginia; shifted berths from Norfolk, Virginia, moving over to Newport News Shipbuilding Company, Newport News, Virginia for her third refueling, 18 days ahead of schedule to avoid Hurricane Lili, on 12 October 1990 commencing RCOH the same day. As the lead ship in its class, the USS Nimitz (CVN-68), former CVA(N)-68 was the second CVN to conduct a Refueling and Complex Overhaul (RCOH) (Enterprise made three ROH & one RCOH), requiring the ship to return to its birthplace of Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corp., Newport News, Virginia, commencing 26 May 1998 and scheduled for three years, Nimitz made a deadstick move to Drydock No. 11 at Newport News to commence her 33 month refueling complex overhaul on 26 May 1998; conducted a 3-year complex mid-life and transited the James River, returning to Norfolk, Va., conducting her first RCOH and third ROH from 26 May 1998 to 28 June 2001. Newport News announced the redelivery of Nimitz to the Navy. The carrier moored to Pier 11N at NS Norfolk, and the crew began onloading “Safe for Sea” ordnance, such as small arms ammunition on 28 June 2001. CAPT Steven F. Firks, her CO, noted that the cost of approximately $1.3 billion as nearly twice her original price of $692 million. The ship originally went to sea with two nuclear reactors, which, due to technological improvements, provided her with the some propulsive power as the eight installed in Enterprise. After years of steaming, however, they required considerable work. The crew transferred most support equipment to the Naval Air Systems Command Southeast Rework facility, Solomons Island, Md., and to the Naval Air Depot, NAS Jacksonville, Fla. While in the yard a number of sailors completed afloat training on board other ships at varying periods, including Carl Vinson, John F. Kennedy and guided missile cruiser Normandy (CG-60). The crew also accomplished the “Y2K rollover,” ensuring that all computer networks complied with 21st Century time-keeping without interrupting end users and without hardware applications failures. Sailors provided “critical” HH-60 parts to aircraft carrier John C. Stennis (CVN-74). Relatively relaxed watchstanding provided sailors the opportunity to transition from eight duty sections to 10 (five during holiday standdown with a primary and standby “alternate” sections). Most crewmembers transferred to Floating Accommodation Facility, a $20 million, 300 foot barge with berthing, galleys, office space and medical facilities. The shipyard provided the “floating hotel” to accommodate crucial crew needed to oversee vital work, though over 1,900 bachelor sailors berthed ashore. Steelworkers struck, however, from 5 April–30 July 1999, delaying progress, though the crew continued the overhaul as well as they could. Nimitz made a deadstick move to Drydock No. 11 at Newport News to commence her 33 month refueling complex overhaul on 26 May 1998. RADM Daniel R. Bowler (and his relief RADM Peter W. Marzluff), Commander, Cruiser-Destroyer Group-5 assumed operational control of Nimitz on 15 July 1998. The crew of Nimitz held a memorial service for GMSN Brian E. Hubert, who died when he accidentally fell five decks through an open hatch on 22 January 1999. VADM Michael L. Bowman, Commander, Naval Air Forces, Pacific Fleet, visited Nimitz on 17 March 1999. The crew of Nimitz offloaded their remaining test equipment and shipped it to Naval Surface Weapons Center (NSWC) Seal Beach, Calif. on 27 April 1999. VADM Michael L. Bowman, Commander, Naval Air Forces, Pacific Fleet, again inspected Nimitz on 23 June 1999. The crew of Nimitz performed their first baptism in the ship’s bell. The honor went to Blair A. Thomas, son of ICC Mary M. Thomas of the ships company on 9 July 1999. The crew of Nimitz and shipyard workers completed their final hull inspections and flooded Drydock No. 11 to 23 feet of water on the hull1 November 1999. Nimitz shifted berths from Drydock No. 11 to Outfitting Berth No. on 16 November 1999. VADM Michael L. Bowman, Commander, Naval Air Forces, Pacific Fleet, again inspected Nimitz on 22 November 1999. Nimitz began the New Year moored to Pier 2 at Newport News Shipbuilding on 1 January 2001. Nimitz completed her first test catapult shots (27) following overhaul on 2 March 2001. Nimitz turned around to face bow in at Pier 2 at Newport News. This is vital to preserve ships from the corrosion of the elements, to prepare them for sea and in this case, to also facilitate her propulsion plant dock trials on 19 March 2001. RCOH Installations: RIM-116A Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM) System, a lightweight quick-reaction “fire-and-forget” missile designed to counter anti-ship missiles attacking in waves or streams, on her starboard bow; Integrated Communications and Advanced Networks (ICAN), which combined previously separate communications and navigation systems for greater efficiency; local area network comprising over 300 workstations serving seven geographical sites. Among the improvements to her electronic connectivity was the installation of a T-1 line; Global Command and Control System-Maritime; SEATEL satellite television system. On 28 June 2001, Nimitz arrived Pier 11N at Naval Station Norfolk, Va. conducting Sea Trials from 25 to 27 June 2001upon departure from Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corp., Newport News, Virginia, temporary berthed at Naval Base Norfolk, Va., en route to the Virginia Capes operating area. Newport News announced the redelivery of Nimitz to the Navy. The carrier moored to Pier 11N at NS Norfolk, and the crew began onloading “Safe for Sea” ordnance, such as small arms ammunition.

Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69), former CVA(N)-6922/05/01 to 25/03/05 – In early 2001, Dwight D. Eisenhower underwent the Ship's Coordinated Offload and Outfitting Plan (SCOOP) in preparation for the mid-life Refueling and Complex Overhaul (RCOH). Beginning on 5 March 2001, Captain Mark T. McNally declared all crew berthing and workspaces, with the exception of Engineering and Reactor, “uninhabitable,” and began moving the crew ashore. On 22 May 2001, Dwight D. Eisenhower returned to its birthplace of Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corp., Newport News, Virginia, for a 36-month $2.5 billion RCOH, deadsticking over to the yard during the morning of the 22nd, entering Drydock No. 11 two days later.

 

The yard period will account for more than half the Dwight D. Eisenhower lifetime budget as nearly every space and system onboard is upgraded and overhauled. The complex renovations and major technological upgrades during its scheduled half-life are expected to extend the ship's service life well beyond 2025. The shipyard provided Floating Accommodation Facility (FAF), a $20 million, 300 foot barge fitted with berthing, galleys, office space and medical facilities. In addition, the crew required seven other facilities, nine contracted apartment complexes and four barracks for accommodations. The ship also established a support equipment storage facility at the Cheatham Annex at Naval Weapons Station Yorktown, near Williamsburg, Va. Even with these additions the crew experienced housing congestion, but as Precommissioning Unit Ronald Reagan (CVN-76) proceeded toward their ship’s completion they vacated Huntington Hall and some contracted apartments in December 2002, enabling 175 crewmembers to relocate from Ft. Eustis to the hall.

 

Dwight D. Eisenhower shifted from Drydock No. 11 to Outfitting Pier No. 1, commencing the flooding of the drydock on 9 December 2002, and shifting berths on the 15th. The Department of Defense announced that it awarded Northrop Grumman Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corp. contract to extend the end date for the overhaul of Dwight D. Eisenhower by another 11 weeks to 6 November 2004, on 15 December 2003. Dwight D. Eisenhower reported that “nearly every space and system on board was upgraded and overhauled” during this massive project. The carrier unveiled her uniquely redesigned antenna mast during 2003. The crew installed two additional rigid hull inflatable boats (RHIBs) for security, as they patrolled the James River. This proved to be fortuitous on 7 July 2004, when a RHIB crew saved 11 people in four different private boats in distress out on the river due to rough weather. The men and women of the ship completed crew certification and began moving back on board a few days later on the 12th, when they finished returning from FAF. Additional delays later extended her completion beyond that date, and her cost to approximately $2.5 billion, collectively generating heated debate among the media and in the Congress.

 

In the United States nuclear Navy, Refueling and Complex Overhaul (ROH/ RCOH) refers to a lengthy process or procedure performed on nuclear-powered Naval ships, which involves replacement of expended nuclear fuel with new fuel and a general maintenance fix-up and often modernization of the entire ship. In theory, such a process could simply involve only refueling or only an overhaul, but nuclear refueling is usually combined with an overhaul. An ROH usually takes a year to two years or longer to perform at a Naval shipyard. Time periods between ROH's on a ship have varied historically from about 5-20 years (for submarines) to up to 25 years (for Nimitz-class aircraft carriers). For modern submarines and aircraft carriers, ROH's are typically carried out about midway through their operating lifespan. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refueling_and_overhaul

 

After spending 44 months in Northrop Grumman Newport News shipyard for a major mid-life Refueling and Complex Overhaul, Dwight D. Eisenhower was redelivered to the fleet on 25 March 2005, after a four-year, approximately $2.5 billion dollar RCOH that brought state-of-the-art equipment and technology to one of America’s premier fighting platforms; extended 11 weeks for contract modification; successfully completed Crew Certification Phase II on 16 November 2004 and certified ready for sea.

 

The crew was inspected by Commander, Naval Air Force, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (COMNAVAIRLANT) and Afloat Training Group (ATG) staff. Dwight D. Eisenhower moved to a different pier at Norfolk, Virginia on 8 February 2005; simulating an underway replenishment (UNREP) on 18 March 2005 with the Military Sealift Command ship USNS John Lenthall (T-AO 189) while pierside at Naval Station Norfolk; returned to her homeport Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia on 25 March 2005 upon completion of post- Refueling and Complex Overhaul (RCOH) shipyard sea trials in the Western Atlantic from 23 to 24 March 2005, departing on 22 March 2005; returned to homeport Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia upon completion of shipyard sea trials in the Western Atlantic on 25 January 2005, commencing on 21 January 2005; extended 11 weeks for contract modification; Dwight D. Eisenhower successfully completed Crew Certification Phase II on 16 November 2004, certified ready for sea, deadsticked over to the yard for RCOH on 22 May 2001 during the morning of the 22nd, entering Drydock No. 11 two days later.

 

At various times during the overhaul, her sailors served on board aircraft carriers USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72), USS Enterprise (CVN-65), USS Harry S. Truman (CVN-75), USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67), USS Ronald Reagan (CVN-76) and USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71), amphibious assault ships USS Bataan (LHD-5), USS Kearsarge (LHD-3) and USS Saipan (LHA-2), guided missile cruiser Leyte Gulf (CG-55), dock landing ship Carter Hall (LSD-50), guided missile destroyer USS Winston S. Churchill (DDG-81), combat stores ship Saturn (AFS-8) and fast combat support ship USS Seattle (AOE-3), as well as ashore at stations across the U.S. and in Afghanistan, Bahrain, Columbia, England, Guantánamo Bay, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. Tugs towed the ship over to Norfolk on 25 January 2005” (Ref. 76, 383B, 692, 693, 694 & 695).

 

USS Dwight D. Eisenhower Redelivered to the Fleet

 

“The RCOH included the reconstruction of the ship’s island, the installation of a new antenna mast, the installation of a new radar tower, an upgrade and modernization of combat and communication systems, overhaul of the ship's hull, mechanical and electrical systems, and the refueling of her two nuclear reactors. “I’m extremely proud of my crew. They have put their hearts and souls into bringing life back into this warship,” said Capptain Charles Smith, USS Dwight D. Eisenhower’s (CVN 69) (Ike) commanding officer. “It was truly a team effort, and my crew is excited to be underway. This is the start of Ike’s second life in serving our great nation.” One of the great successes of the overhaul was the ability of Ike’s Sailors to step up to the plate and augment the work performed by shipyard workers and contractors. “The crew logged more than 5.9 million man-hours in support of the RCOH,” said Lieutant Commander Brian Lepine, Ike’s maintenance manager.

 

Ike’s crew took on a ship’s force work package that, using conservative estimates, was $375 million worth of work. That’s money that we, as a crew, saved the American taxpayer.” Though life in the shipyard isn’t one seagoing Sailors are used to, the hard work paid off with the ship’s return to sea and the successful completion of Sea Trials, marking another milestone for Ike’s crew. “The purpose of Sea Trials was to test the various components that were worked on,” said Lieutant Commander John Stewart, Ike’s Sea Trials coordinator. “We took Ike out and put her through all the processes that are required of her in the defense of freedom.” While Ike’s crew operated their warship for the first time at sea following the RCOH, testing went on around the clock. Ike conducted various evolutions, such as high-speed runs and turns, communications system checks, countermeasure wash downs and helicopter operations. Manned with more than 3,300 Sailors and more than 490 Northrop Grumman Newport News shipyard and Naval Sea Systems Command employees and contractors, Ike was the second Nimitz class nuclear-powered aircraft carrier to complete an RCOH, following USS Nimitz (CVN-68).

 

The improvements made on Ike over the last four years have prepared the carrier to serve for another 25 years. Ike’s next major milestones are to certify the flight deck and begin to conduct routine carrier operations at sea in preparation to participate in the U.S. Navy’s Fleet Response Plan” (Ref. 692 & Story Number: NNS050329-10 - Release Date: 3/29/2005 1:01:00 PM - From USS Dwight D. Eisenhower Public Affairs - NORFOLK, Va. (NNS)). http://www.navy.mil/search/display.asp?story_id=17687

 

Mid-Life Refueling and Complex Overhaul (RCOH) transitioned: LAN to metropolitan area network (MAN); message processing from NavMacs II to Personal Message Computer Terminal (PCMT); installations: RIM-116A Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM) System, a lightweight quick-reaction “fire-and-forget” missile designed to counter anti-ship missiles attacking in waves or streams; rearchitectured NATO Sea Sparrow missile system; Radio Communications Suite (RCS), providing external afloat communications in support of “real world missions;” AN/SMQ-11; UMQ-12 Mini-Rawinsonde System; Integrated Communications Advanced Network (ICAN), which could distribute all navigation, communication and machinery controls” (Ref. 383B).

Carl Vinson (CVN-70)11/11/05 to 11/07/09 – Towed from Naval Station Norfolk to Northrop Grumman Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corp., Newport News, Virginia where she will under go RCOH and will be completely refitted, and the nuclear fuel that powers the Nimitz-class carrier will be replenished in a period of 3 1/2 years. In the United States nuclear Navy, Refueling and Overhaul (ROH/ RCOH) refers to a lengthy process or procedure performed on nuclear-powered Naval ships, which involves replacement of expended nuclear fuel with new fuel and a general maintenance fix-up and often modernization of the entire ship. In theory, such a process could simply involve only refueling or only an overhaul, but nuclear refueling is usually combined with an overhaul. An ROH usually takes a year to two years or longer to perform at a Naval shipyard. Time periods between ROH's on a ship have varied historically from about 5-20 years (for submarines) to up to 25 years (for Nimitz-class aircraft carriers). For modern submarines and aircraft carriers, ROH's are typically carried out about midway through their operating lifespan. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refueling_and_overhaul

 

“The Carl Vinson (CVN-70), the 70th aircraft carrier of the United States Navy by Hull No. and in order of commission, the 58th, commissioning at the Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Co., Newport News, Virginia on 13 March 1982 and returned to its birthplace of Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corp., Newport News, Virginia for the third Nimtz Class aircraft carrier and fourth CVN to conduct a major mid-life Refueling and Complex Overhaul (RCOH) commencing on 11 November 2005, where she will be completely refitted, and the nuclear fuel that powers the Nimitz-class carrier will be replenished in a period of 3 1/2 years (commencing planning for 2005’s RCOH upon return from her second around-the-world deployment and home port transfer from Bremerton, Washington, from 13 January to 31 July 2005, with Carrier Strike Group 3, Carrier Air Wing 9, DESRON 31, the guided-missile cruiser USS Antietam (CG-70), the guided-missile destroyers USS O’Kane (DDG-77) and USS Mustin (DDG-89), the fast combat support ship USS Camden (AOE-2), and the attack submarine USS Olympia (SSN-717), conducting carrier qualifications in the Eastern Pacific, visiting San Diego, Calif. before JTFEX (Joint Task Force Exercise) off the coast of Calif., and upon conclusion of JTFEX, visited San Diego before departing for Apra Harbor, Guam in the Western Pacific, on her tenth Indian Ocean deployment, third North Arabian Sea deployment in support of her 2nd Maritime Security Operations (MSO) to protect offshore infrastructure, including Iraqi oil platforms, which provide a critical source of income for the new Iraqi government and her fifth Arabian Sea/Gulf (Persian Gulf) deployment in support of her 2nd Operation Iraqi Freedom, the multi-national coalition effort to liberate the Iraqi people, eliminate Iraq's weapons of mass destruction, and end the regime of Saddam Hussein, commencing 20 March 2003, the multi-national coalition effort to liberate the Iraqi people, eliminate Iraq's weapons of mass destruction, and end the regime of Saddam Hussein, commencing 20 March 2003international naval exercises, operating under operational control of the US Naval Forces Central Command and 5th Fleet, on her first Gulf of Aden and Red Sea voyage, on her first Suez Canal transit and first voyage in the Mediterranean Sea” (Ref. 72, 76, 375 & 553).

 

Carl Vinson was redelivered to the U.S. Navy by the Northrop Grumman Corp. on 11 July 2009, concluding a 3 ½ year ROCH, while the overhaul was completed on 29 June 2009, when CVN-70 departed Northrop Grumman Newport News Shipyard for ship yard sea trials in the Western Atlantic from 29 June to 2 July 2009, returning to Norfolk, Virginia on 3 July 2009. Carl Vinson was towed from Naval Station Norfolk to Northrop Grumman Newport News Shipyard in order to begin the Refueling and Complex Overhaul (RCOH) on 11 November 2005. April 2006, installations: A prototype AN/WSC-3 SatCom antenna splitter which allowed the two OE-82C SatCom antennae to track two widely separated SatComs simultaneously. On 9 May 2007, Carl Vinson transited the James River en route to a pier-side dock after completing an 18-month dry dock period at Northrop Grumman Newport News. Carl Vinson conducted flight deck certification and carrier qualifications in the Western Atlantic from 11 to 31 July 2009, returning to Norfolk, Virginia on 1 August 2009, commencing after CVN-70’s departure from Norfolk on 10 July 2009.

Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) - 29/08/09 to 29/08/13 – Commenced a shipboard coordinated off-load and outfitting plan (SCOOP) at Naval Station Norfolk June 15, preceded by off-loading ammunition off the coast of Virginia from 18 to 21 May 2009 in preparation of ROCH.

So what exactly is a Refueling and Complex Overhaul (RCOH), and how expensive is it likely to get before all is said and done? After nearly 25 years of service, the USA’s nuclear aircraft carriers undergo a 3-year maintenance period to refuel their nuclear reactors, upgrade and modernize combat and communication systems, and overhaul the ship’s hull, mechanical and electrical systems. This is the refueling and complex overhaul. During an American Nimitz Class carrier’s 50 year life span, it has 4 Drydocking Planned Incremental Availabilities and 12 Planned incremental availabilities. It has only one RCOH, however, which is the most significant overhaul the ship receives during its 50-year life span. See DID’s November 2005 coverage and detailing re: the CVN-70 USS Carl Vinson’s RCOH, which is expected to cost a total of $2.89 billion; about $1.94 billion went to Northrop Grumman for planning and execution. Note that the new CVN-21 Class will have a redesigned nuclear power plant whose features will affect its RCOH. The new system is expected to make use of advances from the USA’s Seawolf and Virginia Class submarine reactors, in order to eliminate expensive reactor refueling completely, increase the reactors’ output, and drop the number of people required to operate them.

 

Contracts & Key Events

 

Unless otherwise specified, all contracts are issued to Northrop Grumman’s Newport News in Newport News, VA by the Naval Sea Systems Command in Washington, DC.

Nov 16/06: A $65.3 million cost-plus-fixed fee, level of effort contract for FY 2007 advance planning in preparation for the refueling and complex overhaul (RCOH) of the Theodore Roosevelt and its reactor plants. Northrop Grumman’s Newport News will perform the advance planning, design, documentation, engineering, material procurement, shipboard inspections, fabrication, and preliminary shipyard or support facility work. This contract was not competitively procured (N00024-07-C-2117).

 

Northrop Grumman Awarded $558 Million Planning Contract for USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) Work

 

NEWPORT NEWS, Va., Jan. 4, 2008 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Northrop Grumman Corporation (NYSE:NOC) has been awarded a planning contract option from the U.S. Navy for the refueling and complex overhaul of the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Theodore Roosevelt. This option is valued at $186.4 million and continues work awarded in 2006. The total estimated value of the contract is $558.2 million. A photo accompanying this release http://media.primezone.com/noc.

 

The company's Newport News sector will perform the work, which includes planning, design, documentation, engineering, material procurement, shipboard inspections, fabrication and preliminary shipyard or support facility work. The carrier is scheduled to arrive at the Newport News shipyard in 2009 for its first and only refueling during a service life expected to span approximately 50 years. "Our shipbuilders and Navy teammates are working together as a team to plan Theodore Roosevelt's Refueling and Complex Overhaul (RCOH)," said Ken Mahler, vice president of aircraft carrier overhaul programs for Northrop Grumman's Newport News sector. "This collaboration continues our partnership with our Navy teammates and will help to ensure successful accomplishment of this major program." Theodore Roosevelt is the fourth Nimitz-class carrier built by Northrop Grumman, the nation's sole designer, builder and refueler of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers. It will also be the fourth ship of the class to undergo this major life-cycle milestone. More than 1,300 employees will support the planning effort. Northrop Grumman Corporation is a $31.5 billion global defense and technology company whose 120,000 employees provide innovative systems, products, and solutions in information and services, electronics, aerospace and shipbuilding to government and commercial customers worldwide. The Theodore Roosevelt was built by Northrop Grumman’s Newport News sector. Commissioned on 25 October 1986, CVN-71 is expected to remain in service until 2036. As it approaches its mid-life stage, however, the wear begins to show. Instead of putting a ramp on its flight deck, buying it a nice red car, and pairing it with much younger ships, the US government has begun preparing instead for the RCOH of the Theodore Roosevelt and its reactor plants.

 

The Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) awarded Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding a contract valued at approximately $2.4 billion for the refueling and complex overhaul of Theodore Roosevelt on 26 August 2009, entering the Northrop Grumman Newport News Shipbuilding for its first and only Refueling and Complex Overhaul (RCOH) during a service life expected to span approximately 50 years, the fourth to conduct a RCOH, which required the ship to return to its birthplace of Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding - Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corp., Newport News, Virginia. Northrop Grumman has valued the planning phase alone at $558 million.

USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) with Rear Adm. Troy M. Shoemaker as Commander Carrier Strike Group (CSG) 9 embarked departed Naval Station, Norfolk, Va. 7 December 2011, with Captain John D. Alexander as Commanding Officer, embarking CVW-2 at San Diego, California, for a scheduled routine deployment to the 7th and 5th Fleet Areas of Responsibility, on her transfer to the East Coast from Naval Station, Everett, Washington, for Refueling Complex Overhaul (RCOH) at Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding Newport News (NGSB-NN) to commence upon completion of Ship’s Coordinated Offload & Outfitting Plan (SCOOP). During SCOOP, all equipment and material not permanently attached to the ship is removed in preparation for Abraham Lincoln’s upcoming overhaul, on her 11th “Westpac” deployment and her fourth North Arabian Sea deployment in support of her 4th Maritime Security Operations (MSO), supporting operations that are focused on reassuring regional partners of the United States' commitment to security, which promotes stability and global prosperity, her 4th Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), the "military response to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, commencing on 7 October 2001, on her ninth Arabian/Persian Gulf deployment, operating under operational control of the US Naval Forces Central Command and 5th Fleet, headquartered in Bahrain in 1993, while their former head quarters, USS LA SALLE departed for overhaul and reassignment, and the 5th Fleet in July 1995 reactivated with operational control of the Persian Gulf, Red Sea, and Arabian Sea, while U.S. Naval Forces Central Command operational control extends to the Indian Ocean following the war with Iraq (Operation Desert Storm), with the Commander, 7th Fleet, serving as naval component commander for Central Command, with the beginning of Operation Southern Watch.

 

On 26 October 2012, Abraham Lincoln departed Norfolk, Va. as a precaution against Hurricane Sandy-related storm conditions. From 26 to 31October 2012 in the Western Atlantic. On 1 November 2012, Abraham Lincoln returned to Norfolk, Va. Abraham Lincoln moved to Drydock 11 at Huntington Ingalls Newport News Shipbuilding to begin the final stages of preparation for RCOH on 28 March 2013.

Ref. A - http://www.nn.northropgrumman.com/capabilities/rco.html

Ref. B - http://www.sb.northropgrumman.com/products/acfleetservices/index.html

 

USS Carl Vinson (CVN 70)

 

 

RCOH - Refueling and Complex Overhaul – Ref. A

Aircraft Carrier Fleet Services / Refueling and Complex Overhaul – Ref. B

 

“Northrop Grumman Corporation (NYSE: NOC) “pledges to be the "go to" resource for aircraft carriers, delivering lifecycle services for nuclear powered aircraft carriers. An important milestone in a carrier’s 50 year lifecycle is the Refueling and Complex Overhaul (RCOH) which occurs around midlife” (Ref. A).

 

“During an American Nimitz Class carrier's 50 year life span, it has 4 Drydocking Planned Incremental Availabilities and 12 Planned incremental availabilities. It has only one RCOH, however, which is the most significant overhaul the ship receives during its 50-year life span. See DID's November 2005 coverage and detailing re: the CVN-70 USS Carl Vinson's RCOH, which is expected to cost a total of $2.89 billion; about $1.94 billion went to Northrop Grumman for planning and execution” (Ref. 674).

 

“After nearly 25 years of continuous service, an aircraft carrier undergoes a three year maintenance period to refuel its nuclear reactors, upgrade and modernize combat and communication systems and overhaul the ship's hull, mechanical and electrical systems. This is the refueling and complex overhaul. Upon redelivery, the carrier will be ready for another 25 years of service.

 

Newport News will continue to refuel Nimitz-class carriers for several decades” (Ref. A).

 

“With their uniquely qualified work force and specialized facilities, Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corp., Newport News, Virginia is the only shipyard to perform overhaul and refueling work on Nimitz-class aircraft carriers, a three-year project that includes the refueling of both the ship's reactors, as well as significant modernization work” (Ref. A & B).

 

MAINTENANCE AND MODERNIZATION PROGRAM

VOLUME II, PART I, CHAPTER 2 - Ref. 1036

 

In the United States nuclear Navy, Refueling and Overhaul (ROH) refers to a lengthy process or procedure performed on nuclear-powered Naval ships, which involves replacement of expended nuclear fuel with new fuel and a general maintenance fix-up and often modernization of the entire ship. In theory, such a process could simply involve only refueling or only an overhaul, but nuclear refueling is usually combined with an overhaul. An ROH usually takes a year to two years or longer to perform at a Naval shipyard. Time periods between ROH's on a ship have varied historically from about 5-20 years (for submarines) to up to 25 years (for Nimitz-class aircraft carriers). For modern submarines and aircraft carriers, ROH's are typically carried out about midway through their operating lifespan. 

At a shipyard, a ship to undergo ROH goes into a drydock, which is then closed off from the sea. Then water is evacuated from the drydock with blocks placed under the hull, so the ship's hull will rest on the blocks. At the end of the ROH, the drydock is refilled with water so the ship can float and be let out to sea.

 

To start ROH, operating procedures are used to shut down and cool down the propulsion power plant to bring it to desired temperatures, pressures, and other conditions. During the ROH, ship's Navy crew stand shutdown watches, and civilian shipyard workers do much of the repair, maintenance, and installation work. During an ROH, all personnel in a maintenance work area are commonly required to wear a hard hat.

 

Land-based Naval reactor prototype plants have also undergone similar refueling and overhauls, not at a shipyard but at whatever facility they are located.

 

Refueling

 

In a nuclear-powered ship, the nuclear fuel is essentially a solid inside a reactor core which is inside the ship's nuclear reactor. Once a reactor core has gone critical, meaning it has been used during a reactor operation, highly radioactive nuclear fission products have formed in the core, and the core has become highly radioactive. Refueling involves taking the expended core out of reactor and putting in a new core with fresh nuclear fuel. Because it is so radioactive, removing a core with expended nuclear fuel from a reactor requires elaborate radiological handling precautions.

 

The internal surfaces inside of a reactor plant that has been critical are considered radioactively contaminated.

 

All water that has come into contact with the inside of such a reactor plant is considered radioactive and requires radiological handling and disposal precautions. In addition to radiological training and qualification required for working in radiation areas or with radioactive materials or contamination, radiation exposure to workers is monitored to ensure maximum exposure limits are not exceeded.

 

Overhaul

 

The overhaul commonly includes extensive maintenance and renovation work and checks of various systems and equipment aboard the ship. A major overhaul also typically includes upgrading various systems and equipment to modernize it; for example, old analog electrical equipment may be replaced by new digital electronic equipment. The work for such overhauls is typically planned out by engineers well in advance and new equipment is obtained for any replacements or installations.

 

An example of renovation work done during refueling and overhauls of submarines is the conversion of a fleet ballistic missile submarine (SSBN) to a guided missile submarine (SSGN). Such a conversion consists of taking the ballistic missiles and their silos out of the missile section in the submarine, and replacing them with more than 100 Tomahawk cruise missiles and special operations force insertion platforms which can carry up to 66 special operations personnel. The first four Ohio-class submarines have undergone such conversions during their midlife refueling and overhauls” (Ref. [1]).

 

During an overhaul, an extensive testing program is conducted. Numerous test procedures that have been written are followed, data is recorded as required, and logs of the testing are kept. Among tests that can be conducted include: radiography to test critical welds, testing of fluid systems and other pressure boundaries which includes hydrostatic testing to detect any leaks, and testing of electrical and mechanical setpoints for various types of equipment such as sensor input setpoints for various kinds of automatic trips and safety valve relief pressure setpoints. At the finish of the ROH, the testing data records are bound and retained as a permanent documentation record resulting from the ROH.

 

When the ship is ready to go towards the end of the ROH, the power plant is warmed or brought back up to the desired operating temperature and pressure and can then be started up when ready.

Refueling and Complex Overhaul

Refueling and Complex Overhaul (RCOH) is a process for refueling and upgrading nuclear-powered aircraft carriers in the US Navy performed at a Naval shipyard. The nuclear reactors that power some aircraft carriers typically use up their nuclear fuel about halfway through their desired 50-year life spans.

 

Because carriers can last so long before being retired, they are refueled and refurbished with an RCOH to extend their useable lifetime. At the same time a ship is refueled, it is given a complex overhaul in which broken or worn parts are repaired or replaced and systems are modernized.

 

The modernization typically includes an upgrade of ship’s combat systems and warfighting capabilities, its internal distribution systems are upgraded, and allowance is made for future upgrades over the ship’s remaining operational service life. Given the size of an aircraft carrier and the number of systems and subsystems it has, an RCOH is extremely complex, costly (several billion dollars), and time-consuming. Each RCOH is planned to take almost three years” (Ref. [2], [3] & [4]).

 

References

 

1. Unmanned Undersea Vehicles And Guided Missile Submarines: Technological and Operational Synergies 

 

2. CVN-68 Nimitz-class Modernization

 

3. USS Theodore Roosevelt Headed Into Mid-Life Overhaul

 

4. Refueling and Complex Overhaul

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refueling_and_overhaul

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

U. S. AIRCRAFT CARRIERS PARTICIPATING IN SCB’s, SLEP COH AND RCOH’s (1949 to Present)

 USS CORAL SEA (CV 43)

Operations Evening Light and Eagle Claw, A Sailors tale of his Tour of duty in the U.S. Navy (August 1977 to February 1983)

 

A Sailors tale of his Tour of duty in the U.S. Navy - Operation Evening Light And Eagle Claw -

 

Book - ISBN NO.

978-1-4276-0454-5

EBook - ISBN NO.

978-1-329-15473-5

 

Operations Evening Light and Eagle Claw (24 April 1980) Iran and Air Arm History (1941 to Present)

 

Operations Evening Light and Eagle Claw (24 April 1980) Iran and Air Arm History (1941 to Present)

 

Book ISBN NO.

xxxxxxxxxxxxx

EBook ISBN NO.

978-1-329-19945-3

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA  Vol. I (10 July 1944 to 31 December 1975)

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA Vol. I (10 July 1944 to 31 December 1975) -

 

Book ISBN NO.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

EBook ISBN NO.

978-1-329-54596-0

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. II (1 January 1976 to 25 August 1981)

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. II (1 January 1976 to 25 August 1981) -

 

Book ISBN NO.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

EBook ISBN NO.

978-1-329-54790-2

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. III (20 August 1981 to 26 April 1990)

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. III (20 August 1981 to 26 April 1990) -

 

Book ISBN NO.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

EBook ISBN NO.

978-1-329-55111-4

 

U. S. AIRCRAFT CARRIER SHIP HISTORY (1920 to 2016)

 

U. S. AIRCRAFT

CARRIER SHIP

HISTORY (1920 to 2016)

 

Book - ISBN NO.

978-1-4276-0465-1

EBook - ISBN NO.

978-1-365-25019-4

Library of Congress

Control Number: 

2008901616

(Book Version)

 

U. S. AIRCRAFT CARRIERS REDESIGNATED AND OR RECLASSIFIED (1953 to 2016)

 

U. S. AIRCRAFT

CARRIERS

REDESIGNATED

AND OR

RECLASSIFIED

(1953 to 2016)

 

BOOK - ISBN NO.

978-1-4276-0452-1

EBook - ISBN NO.

978-1-365-25041-5

Library of Congress

(Book Version)

2008901619