United States Navy History, focusing on the Atlantic, 8th, 2nd and 4th Fleets

Part I (1778 to 1918)

Part II (1919 to 1989)

Part III (1990 to 2011)

Part IV (2nd, Fleet Forces Command & 4th Fleet

(8th and 2nd decommissioned)

 

Israel Map

 

http://www.israelmapxl.com

http://www.eyeonisrael.com/map_Israel.html

 

 

http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.worldcountries.info/Maps/Region/MiddleEast-450.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.worldcountries.info/MiddleEast.htm&h=548&w=450&sz=83&tbnid=cXGOMRasbO-EAM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=74&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dmediterranean%2Bsea%2Band%2Bpersian%2Bgulf%2Bmap%26tbm%3Disch%26tbo%3Du&zoom=1&q=mediterranean+sea+and+persian+gulf+map&usg=____EVJkeRlb3MP94ZwB_T9Jw06Lw=&docid=J2Ra0qK6Da3ToM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=VttPUJqQMOWEjAK2tID4DQ&ved=0CC0Q9QEwAw&dur=25

 

NAVY COMMANDS

 

 

“The United States Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, which the Continental Congress established during the American Revolutionary War. The United States Constitution, which was ratified in 1789, empowered Congress, "to provide and maintain a navy." Acting on this authority, Congress ordered the construction and manning of six frigates; one of the original six, USS Constitution, familiarly known as "Old Ironsides," survives to this day.

 

The War Department administered naval affairs from that year until Congress established the Department of the Navy on April 30, 1798. The Navy became part of the Department of Defense upon its establishment in 1947” (Ref. 639).

 

Legendary heroes in American naval history, from the revolutionary John Paul Jones (who made flag rank only in the Russian navy and will be remembered for his famous last stand and call out to his enemy: “I have not yet begun to Fight”) are covered in the book Admiral Dan Gallery : The Life and Wit of a Navy Original by C. Herbert Gilliland - http://www.seatalebooks.com/navy/naval_admirals.htm

 

“The First Fleet was the fleet of sailing ships that brought the original settlers and convicts to Australia from England. Captain Arthur Phillip led the fleet out of Portsmouth, England on May 13, 1787, with eleven ships full of convicts to establish a penal colony in Australia. On January 26, 1788, they established the first European settlement on the continent at Sydney Cove (now Sydney) in Port Jackson after Phillip decided that Botany Bay was not suitable for settlement due to a lack of fresh water.

 

The first fleet consisted of the following ships” (Ref. 313H):

 

H.M.S. Supply

H.M.S. Sirius

The Alexander

The Borrowdale

The Charlotte

The Fishburn

The Golden Grove

The Lady Penrhyn

The Prince Of Wales

The Scarborough.

 

 

 

Mediterranean

 

“The United States has maintained a naval presence in the Mediterranean Sea since the early 19th century, when U.S. Naval forces first engaged the Barbary Pirates to prevent them from interfering with commercial shipping. "Millions for defense, but not a penny for tribute!” (Ref. 313E).

 

Navy Organization - a look at the organization of the Navy

 

The Type Commands

 

All ships are organized into categories by type. Aircraft carriers, aircraft squadrons, and air stations are under the administrative control of the appropriate Commander Naval Air Force. Submarines come under the Commander Submarine Force. All other ships fall under Commander Naval Surface Force. Also, you will note that the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets mirror one another. Normally, the type command controls the ship during its primary and intermediate training cycles and then it moves under the operational control of a fleet commander. Some of the blocks in this diagram are hyperlinked to the web site of that command.

 

Navy Type Command organization

 

http://www.navy.mil/navydata/organization/tycoms.asp

 

ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION OF THE OPERATING FORCES OF THE U.S. NAVY -  1 Mar 2012

 

ECHELON FLEET CHAIN OF COMMAND

 

1 CHIEF OF NAVAL OPERATIONS (00011)

2 CONSTITUTION (U S SHIP OF STATE) http://doni.daps.dla.mil/SECNAV%20Manuals/Admin%20Fleet%20Chain%20of%20Command%20%28MAR%202012%29.pdf

 

 

US Atlantic Fleet

 

“The Atlantic Fleet (USLANTFLT) of the United States Navy was part of the Navy responsible for operations in around the Atlantic Ocean, originally established as Commander In Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANTFLT). CINCLANTFLT was established under one command in 1906 by President Theodore Roosevelt” (Ref. 313B & 313B2).

 

The Fleet concept came into being following the Spanish-American War when new bases acquired in the Caribbean and the Pacific were considered useless unless protected by an adequate fleet” (Ref. 313B2).

 

Rolling Thunder

 

“Some say that the battleship began with USS Monitor, the famous ironclad whose battle with the CSS Virginia in Hampton Roads on Mar. 9, 1862, drew the attention of the world. Monitor had a centerline, rotating iron gun turret, armored sides and deck, and steam propulsion. She was ill-equipped for sailing on the high seas, however, and foundered off Cape Hatteras, N.C., in December 1862.

 

Others may say, however, that the genesis of the battleship began with USS Michigan, a side wheel steamer commissioned on Sept. 29, 1844. Michigan was the Navys first iron-hulled warship and was built for the defense of Lake Erie.

 

Whichever ship is considered to be the forerunner of the battleship, there were some developments which spurred the origin of the lethal leviathan of the sea. One was the writings of Capt. Alfred Thayer Mahan, USN, who published several books on naval strategy that became the bibles of many navies throughout the world. Capt. Mahans works pointed out the importance of having a capital ship for the control of the sea.

 

The second event was the Russian-Japanese War of 1894-95. Here, the "battleship" was put to the test, and the results showed that the new ship class was supreme at sea” (Ref. 313B6).

 

http://www.navy.mil/navydata/ships/battleships/ohio/ohio1907.jpg

http://www.navy.mil/navydata/ships/battleships/ohio/ohio1907.jpg

 

“The United States commissioned her first battleship, USS Texas, on Apr. 15, 1895. This coal-burning ship, had an overall length of 309 feet and an extreme beam of 64 feet, displaced 6,315 tons, and had a complement of 30 officers and 362 enlisted men. She carried two 12-inch and six 6-inch guns and was equipped with four 14-inch torpedo tubes. For protection she carried 12-inches of steel armor, and while not the titan of later years, for her era she was one of the most powerful ships in the world.

 

While Kansas was under construction, an event took place that touched off the greatest naval arms race in history. In 1905, King Edward VII of England christened a new ship designed by British Admiral of the Fleet Lord Fisher. This ship was unquestionably the most powerful afloat. Her name, HMS Dreadnought, was derived from "Fear God and dread nought." Few ships have captured the world’s imagination like Dreadnought. Her name became synonymous with "battleship"” (Ref. 313B6).

 

President Roosevelt placed great emphasis on naval readiness for war. During his first administration, from 1901 to 1905, authorization was obtained from Congress for 10 new battleships, four armored cruisers and 17 smaller craft. All battleships were assigned to the Atlantic Fleet and all armored cruisers and lighter cruisers were assigned to the newly created Pacific Fleet” (Ref. 313B2). 

 

“Originally formed as Commander In Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANTFLT), CINCLANTFLT was established under one command by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906, the Atlantic Fleet (USLANTFLT) of the United States Navy was part of the Navy responsible for operations in around the Atlantic Ocean. CINCLANTFLT was established under one command in 1906 by President Theodore Roosevelt” (Ref. 313B & 313B2).

 

“The Atlantic Fleet was established at the same time as the Pacific Fleet, as protection for new bases in the Caribbean acquired as a result of the Spanish-American War. The Fleet was a combination of the North Atlantic Fleet and the South Atlantic Squadron” (Ref. 313B; 313B1; 313B2 & 313B8).

 

“A Pacific Fleet was created in 1907 when the Asiatic Squadron and the Pacific Squadron were joined” (Ref. 313B).

 

“Along the Pacific Ocean's irregular margins lie many seas, the largest of which are the Celebes Sea, Coral Sea, East China Sea, Sea of Japan, South China Sea, Sulu Sea, Tasman Sea and Yellow Sea. The Straits of Malacca joins the Pacific and the Indian oceans on the west, and the Straits of Magellan links the Pacific with the Atlantic Ocean on the east” (Ref. 23).

 

“Prior to New Years Day 1906, the Navy had what was then known as the Atlantic Station, which made up most of the United States Navy. On Jan. 1, 1906, the Navys Atlantic Fleet was established, consisting of: the Battleship Force, Cruiser Force, and the Destroyer Force. None of these forces, however, were organized in the manner of the type commands of later years” (Ref. 313B6).

 

The first Commander in Chief of the Atlantic Fleet was Rear Admiral Robley D. Evans, who assumed command on 1 January 1906 aboard his flagship the battleship USS MAINE (BB-10)” (Ref. 313B2).

 

“Battleships began to grow by 1907. USS Kansas (BB-21) displaced twice the tonnage of Texas, was more heavily armed, and had 42 officers and 838 enlisted men.

 

The most renowned operation of those early years was the formation of the "Great White Fleet," which departed Norfolk, Va., on Dec. 16, 1907, to become the first fleet of warships to circumnavigate the globe” (Ref. 313B6).

 

“In 1907, the first commander of the Atlantic Fleet was Rear Admiral Robley D. Evans, who hoisted his flag in the battleship Maine (BB-10) on 1 January 1906, took his 16 first line battleships out of Hampton Roads on the start of the famous world cruise of the  Great White Fleet, on a round-the-world goodwill cruise that served the purpose of advertising the USA's naval strength and reach to all other nations of the globe from 1907 to 1909” (Ref. 313B; 313B2 & 313B6).

 

“President Roosevelt witnessed the departure from his yacht MAYFLOWER. This ceremonious Fleet Review served as a highlight of the Jamestown Exposition, then held at the site of the present Norfolk Naval Station” (Ref. 313B2).

 

Rear Admiral Robley D. Evans, the first commander of the Atlantic Fleet returned from a round-the-world goodwill tour that also served the purpose of advertising the USA's naval strength and reach to all other nations of the globe with his 16 battleships, now dubbed the Great White Fleet which departed Norfolk, Va., on Dec. 16, 1907, to become the first fleet of warships to circumnavigate the globe. They returned to President Theodore Roosevelts welcome on Feb. 22, 1909” (Ref. 313B & 313B6).

 

“On 3 November 1909, Lieut. George Sweet was taken up as a passenger in the first Army Wright aircraft by Lieut. Frank P. Lahm, USA, at College Park, Md. Lieut. Sweet is credited with being the first Navy officer to have flown in an airplane” (Ref. 68). 

 

“In 1910, the ships of the First Squadron were organized back into a separate Asiatic Fleet” (Ref. 313B).

 

“On 26 September 1910, the Secretary of the Navy, George von L. Meyer, designated Capt. Washington I. Chambers, Assistant to the Aid for Material, as the officer to whom all correspondence on aviation should be referred. This is the first recorded reference to a provision for aviation in the Navy Department” (Ref. 68).

 

“On 14 November 1910, Eugene Ely, 24, a civilian pilot, took off in a 50-hp. Curtiss plane from a wooden platform built over the bow of the light cruiser USS Birmingham (CL-2). The ship was at anchor in Hampton Roads, Va., and Ely landed moments later on Willoughby Spit” (Ref. 68).

 

“On 29 November 1910, Glenn H. Curtiss wrote to Secretary Meyer offering flight instruction without charge for one Navy officer as one means of assisting "in developing the adaptability of the aeroplane to military purposes” (Ref. 68).

 

On 23 December 1910, Lieut. T. Gordon "Spuds" Ellyson, was ordered to report to the Glenn Curtiss Aviation Camp at North Island, San Diego, Calif.” (Ref. 68). 

 

In 1910, aviator Eugene Ely took off from the modified deck of the cruiser USS Birmingham (CL-2) in an early Curtis airplane. When Ely landed on a nearby beach after a four minute, two-and-a-half mile flight, he proved that taking off from a warship was not a problem; landing on the warship was another matter entirely” (Ref. 646 or 623).
 

“On 18 January 1911, at 11:01 a.m., Eugene Ely, flying a Curtiss pusher, landed on a specially built platform aboard the armored cruiser USS Pennsylvania (ACR 4) at anchor in San Francisco Bay. At 11:58 a.m., he took off and returned to Selfridge Field, San Francisco” (Ref. 68). 

 

“Lieut. T. Gordon "Spuds" Ellyson completed his flight training at Glenn Curtiss Aviation Camp at North Island, San Diego, Calif. on 12 April 1911, and became Naval Aviator No. 1” (Ref. 68). 

 

Eugene Ely flew an especially adapted Curtiss aircraft onto the deck of the USS Pennsylvania while the ship was anchored in San Francisco Bay. The Pennsylvania's deck had been custom equipped with a small landing platform and a series of ropes which were used to stop the aircraft” (1911 - First Landing on Ship- Ref. 568).

 

SHIP

LAID DOWN

DATE

Jupiter (AC-3)

Mare Island Naval Shipyard of Vallejo, California

18/10/11

The first electrically-propelled ship of the United States Navy

 

Jupiter (AC-3) was laid down 18 October 1911 by Mare Island Naval Shipyard of Vallejo, California, as the first electrically-propelled ship of the United States Navy” (Ref. 1-Langley & 72).

 

Italian pilot Lt Giulo Gavoti dropped grenades on Turkish troops below. Gavoti flew a Bleriot XI” (1911 -  First Air Raid - Ref. 568).

 

On 5 November 1911, thousands of people showed up in Pasadena, California to witness the arrival of Calbraith Rodgers after a 49 day flight across the United States. Rodgers made 69 stops along the way and was followed by a special train carrying spare parts. He made 16 crash landings. Rodgers' trip was sponsored by Armour Meat Packing Company to promote "VIn Fiz" a soft drink. Rodger received $5 for each mile from Armour for a total of $21,605” (1911 - First Coast to Coast Flight - Ref. 568).

 

Harriet Quimby, America's first woman pilot, plunged to 1500 feet to her death when her place went into a dive and hurled her to the ground. The tragedy took place at the Harvard- Boston Air meet in Squantum, Massachuesetts” (1912 - America's First Women Aviator Dies - Ref. 568).

 

In the first of its kind contest, held in Monaco planes were required to land and takeoff in calm and choppy waters. Contestants received extra points for taking passengers. The winner was Belgiums Juls Fischer, flying a Henry Farman aircraft” (1912 - First Seaplane Contest - Ref. 568).

 

SHIP

LAID DOWN

DATE

Launched

DATE

Jupiter (AC-3)

Mare Island Naval Shipyard of Vallejo, California

18/10/11

Mare Island Naval Shipyard of Vallejo, California

14 /08/12

The first electrically-propelled ship of the United States Navy

Sponsored by Mrs. Thomas F. Ruhm

 

Jupiter (AC-3) was launched 14 August 1912; sponsored by Mrs. Thomas F. Ruhm, Commander Joseph M. Reeves; laid down 18 October 1911 by Mare Island Naval Shipyard of Vallejo, California as the first electrically-propelled ship of the United States Navy” (Ref. 1-Langley & 72).

 

“In late 1912, the United States commissioned its most heavily-armed battleship, USS Wyoming (BB 32). Wyoming was 562 feet in overall length, with an extreme beam of 93 feet. She displaced 26,000 tons and carried 58 officers and more than 1,000 enlisted men. Her armor plate was a foot thick. Her main battery was a dozen 12-inch guns, backed by 21 5-inch guns and two 21-inch torpedo tubes” (Ref. 313B6).

 

Beginning in 1913, Britain’s Royal Navy began modifying existing ship hulls to allow the take-off of aircraft, resulting in the carriers HMS Hermes, HMS Furious (both originally cruisers) and HMS Ark Royal (a former collier)” (Ref. 646 or 623).

 

SHIP

LAID DOWN

DATE

Launched

DATE

Commissioned

DATE

Jupiter (AC-3)

Mare Island Naval Shipyard of Vallejo, California

18/10/11

Mare Island Naval Shipyard of Vallejo, California

14/08/12

Calif. - Comdr. Joseph M. Reeves in command

07/04/13

The first electrically-propelled ship of the United States Navy

Sponsored by Mrs. Thomas F. Ruhm

First CO:  Commander Joseph M. Reeves in command upon launching

 

USS Jupiter (AC-3)

 

Jupiter (AC-3) was commissioned 7 April 1913, Comdr. Joseph M. Reeves in command; launched 14 August 1912, sponsored by Mrs. Thomas F. Ruhm; laid down 18 October 1911 by Mare Island Naval Shipyard of Vallejo, California as the first electrically-propelled ship of the United States Navy” (Ref. 1-Langley & 72).

 

Russians launched the largest plane in the world on August 2nd 1913. The plane was powered by fours engines. It weighed over four tons and had a wingspan of 92 feet. The plane flew for 1 hour and 54minuts carrying 8 passengers” 1913 - Russia's Giant Plane Flies - Ref. 568).

 

On September 23rd French pilot Roland Garros crossed the Mediterranean in 7 hours and 53 minutes. Garros set off from a beach southwest of Cannes. He flew out over Sardinia and then across the Mediterranean to Bizerata in Tunisia. Garros arrived with less than a gallon of fuel in his tank” (1913 - Aviator Crosses Mediterranean - Ref. 568).

 

 “On January 1st the St Petersburg/ Tampa Airboat Line began commercial service between the two cities in its name. The airline used Benoist Flying boats for the 19 minute flight” (1914 - First Scheduled Air Service - Ref. 568).

 

“In January 1913 the fleet consisted of six first-line divisions, a torpedo flotilla, submarines, and fleet auxiliaries:

 

The fleet was under the command of Rear Admiral Hugo Osterhaus. The First Division, under Rear Admiral Bradley A. Fiske, consisted of USS Florida (BB-30) (flag), USS Delaware (BB-28), and USS North Dakota (BB-29). The Second Division, under Rear Admiral Nathaniel R. Usher with his flag aboard the USS Vermont (BB-20), consisted of USS Louisiana (BB-19), USS Michigan (BB-27), USS New Hampshire (BB-25), and USS South Carolina (BB-26). The Third Division, under Rear Admiral Cameron McR. Winslow, comprised USS Virginia (BB-13) (flag), USS Georgia (BB-15), USS New Jersey (BB-16), USS Rhode Island (BB-17), and USS Nebraska (BB-14). The Fourth Division, under Rear Admiral Frank F. Fletcher, consisted of the USS Minnesota (BB-22), USS Connecticut (BB-18), USS Ohio (BB-12), USS Idaho (BB-24), and USS Kansas (BB-21). Fifth and Sixth Divisions were made up of protected cruisers, USS St. Louis (C-20), USS Tennessee (ACR-10), USS Washington (ACR-11), and USS Cleveland (C-19), USS Denver (CL-16), USS Des Moines (CL-17), and USS Tacoma (CL-20)” (Ref. 313B4).

 

After successfully passing her trials, USS Jupiter (AC-3), the first electrically-propelled ship of the U.S. Navy, embarked a United States Marine Corps detachment at San Francisco, California and reported to the Pacific Fleet at Mazatlán Mexico on, 27 April 1914, bolstering U.S. naval strength on the Mexican Pacific coast during the tense days of the Veracruz crisis” (Ref. 1-Langley & 72).

 

Navy-Curtiss NC-4 Flying Boat - USA - Ref. 313Z4

 

Once the accomplishment of powered flight became a reality, the urge was inevitable to improve upon the speeds, altitudes and distances of which aeroplanes were capable. From the earliest days, a crossing of the North Atlantic by air had been a cherished ambition, and only the outbreak of war in 1914 prevented competition during that year for the Daily Mail prize of 10,000 pounds offered in 1913 to the first aviators to accomplish a direct (i.e. nonstop) crossing. As recorded elsewhere in the series, the prize was ultimately won in June by John Alcock and Arthur Whitten Brown for their flight in a modified Vickers Vimy, but in the month preceding this, another Atlantic crossing, with stops en route, had been made by an American flying-boat, the NC-4. That this aircraft should have been of Curtiss manufacture was particularly appropriate, for Glenn Curtiss was a pioneer of seaplane design and his company's flying-boat America, was designed originally as a 1914 contestant in the transatlantic competition. A U.S. Navy Curtiss seaplane landed in Lisbon. This was the first successful crossing of the Atlantic. The Navy plane which was one of four that started out and made many stops along the way to Lisbon. The US Navy deployed a large armada of ships to support the crossing” (313Z4).

 

World War I

 

“On 23 June 1914, the Kaiser of Germany opens the deepened Kiel Canal” (Ref. 576A).

 

The assassination on 28 June 1914 of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by a Yugoslav nationalist in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina was the proximate trigger of the war. It resulted in a Habsburg ultimatum against the Kingdom of Serbia.[10][11] Several alliances formed over the previous decades were invoked, so within weeks the major powers were at war; via their colonies, the conflict soon spread around the world.

 

World War I (WWI) was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914, opening with the Austro-Hungarian invasion of Serbia,[12][13] followed by the German invasion of Belgium, Luxembourg and France; and a Russian attack against Germany. Long-term causes of the war included the imperialistic foreign policies of the great powers of Europe, including the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire, the British Empire, the French Republic, and Italy” (Ref. 313M).

 

Prior to America's entry into World War I, USS Jupiter (AC-3) cruised the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico attached to the Atlantic Fleet Auxiliary Division” (Ref. 1-Langley & 72).

 

“On 1 August 1914, Germany orders general mobilization and declares war on Russia” (Ref. 576A).

 

WORLD WAR I CHRONOLOGICAL NARRATIVE AND HISTORY

Aug 1, 1914- Germany Invades Luxembourg

August 2 1913 - Russia's Giant Plane Flies

1914 - Aerial Reconnassaince Proves Value

Aug 13, 1914- Russians Invade Prussia

Aug 23, 1914- Battle of Mons

August 25 1914 - First Aircraft Forced Down

Aug 30, 1914- Germany Victorious Against Russia in Battle od Tannenberg

August 30 1914 - Germans Bomb Paris

Sept 1914- First Battle of Marne

Oct-Nov 1914- First Battle of Ypres

Nov 1914-Germans Capture Lodz

 

Ref. 568/B

 

“In the East, the Russian army successfully fought against the Austro-Hungarian forces but was forced back from East Prussia and Poland by the German army. Additional fronts opened after the Ottoman Empire and Italy joined the war in 1914” (Ref. 313M).

 

USS Jupiter (AC-3) remained on the Pacific coast until she departed for Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on 10 October 1914” (Ref. 1-Langley & 72).

 

En route to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USS Jupiter (AC-3) steamed through the Panama Canal on Columbus Day — the first vessel to transit it from west to east” (Ref. 1-Langley & 72).

 

EARLY AVIATION 1783 - 1919

                                                           1783 - 1914

November 21 1783 - First Hot Air Balloon

December 1 1793 - First Hydrogen Balloon

1794 - Balloon Used by French Army

1861 - Balloon Used in US Civil War

May 6, 1896 - Model Airplane Flown

October 2 1899 - Pilcher Dies After Glider Crash

1900 - Wright Brothers Fly Glider

September 20 1904 - Wright's Fly in a Circle

October 5 1905 - Wrights Fly for 38 Minutes

October 23 1906 - First Powered Flight in Europe

1907 - Charles Voisin Flies

November 13 1907 - First Helicopters Flies

January 13 1908 - Farman Makes First Circular Flight in Europe

August 1908 - Wilbur Wright Flies in Europe

September 17 1908 - First Passenger Killed

1909 - Dehavilland Builds Aircraft

July 27 1909 - US Army Orders Planes

July 25 1909 - English Channel is Crossed

1911 - First Landing on Ship

1911 - First Coast to Coast Flight

1911 - First Air Raid

1912 - America's First Women Aviator Dies

1912 - First Seaplane Contest

September 23 1913 - Aviator Crosses Mediterranean

August 2 1913 - Russia's Giant Plane Flies

January 1 1914 - First Scheduled Air Service

 

Ref. 568

 

WORLD WAR I CHRONOLOGICAL NARRATIVE AND HISTORY

Aug 1, 1914- Germany Invades Luxembourg

August 2 1913 - Russia's Giant Plane Flies

1914 - Aerial Reconnassaince Proves Value

Aug 13, 1914- Russians Invade Prussia

Aug 23, 1914- Battle of Mons

August 25 1914 - First Aircraft Forced Down

Aug 30, 1914- Germany Victorious Against Russia in Battle od Tannenberg

August 30 1914 - Germans Bomb Paris

Sept 1914- First Battle of Marne

Oct-Nov 1914- First Battle of Ypres

Nov 1914-Germans Capture Lodz

 

Jan 1915- First Zeppelin Bombing of England

1915 - Fokker E III Aircraft Dominate

Feb 1915- Gallipoli Campaign Begins

April 1915-Second Battle of Ypres

May 1915- Lusitania Sunk

Sept 1915-Vilnius Falls to Germans

September 8 1915 - Zepplin Bombs London

Sept 1915-Third Battle of Artois

1916-Battle of Verdun

April 24 1916 - British Introduce DH-2

1916 - Boeing Founded

May 1916-Battle of Jutland Island

July 1916- Battle of Somme

1917 - Bloody April

Nov 1917- Battle of Cambrai

1917-Allenby Takes Jerusalem

March 1918-Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

April 21 1918 - Red Baron Shot Down

May 15 1918 - Air Mail Service Begun

July 1918-Battle of Marne

September 23 1918 - Rickenbacker Downs Two Planes

1919 - US Seaplanes Cross Atlantic

 

 

Ref. 568/B

 

WORLD WAR I CHRONOLOGICAL NARRATIVE AND HISTORY

Jan 1915- First Zeppelin Bombing of England

1915 - Fokker E III Aircraft Dominate

Feb 1915- Gallipoli Campaign Begins

April 1915-Second Battle of Ypres

May 1915- Lusitania Sunk

Sept 1915-Vilnius Falls to Germans

September 8 1915 - Zepplin Bombs London

Sept 1915-Third Battle of Artois

1916-Battle of Verdun

Ref. 568/B

 

“Additional fronts opened after Bulgaria joined the war in 1915” (Ref. 576A).

 

On 5 November 1915, Lieut. Cmdr. Henry C. Mustin made the first catapault launching from a ship. He flew an AB-2 flying boat off the stern of USS North Carolina (ACR 12) in Pensacola Bay, Fla.” (Ref. 68). 

 

United States Isolationism

 

“The United States originally pursued a policy of isolationism, avoiding conflict while trying to broker a peace. This resulted in increased tensions with Berlin and London. When a German U-boat sank the British liner Lusitania May 7, 1915, with 128 Americans aboard, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson vowed, "America is too proud to fight" and demanded an end to attacks on passenger ships. Germany complied. Wilson unsuccessfully tried to mediate a settlement. He repeatedly warned the U.S. would not tolerate unrestricted submarine warfare, in violation of international law and U.S. ideas of human rights. Wilson was under pressure from former president Theodore Roosevelt, who denounced German acts as "piracy". Wilson's desire to have a seat at negotiations at war's end to advance the League of Nations also played a role. Wilson's Secretary of State, William Jennings Bryan, resigned in protest at what he felt was the President's decidedly warmongering diplomacy. Other factors contributing to the U.S. entry into the war include the suspected German sabotage of both Black Tom in Jersey City, New Jersey, and the Kingsland Explosion in what is now Lyndhurst, New Jersey” (Ref. 313P & 313Q).

 

WORLD WAR I CHRONOLOGICAL NARRATIVE AND HISTORY

July 1916- Battle of Somme

July 1916- Battle of Somme

1916-Battle of Verdun

April 24 1916 - British Introduce DH-2

1916 - Boeing Founded

May 1916-Battle of Jutland Island

Ref. 568/B

 

“Additional fronts opened after Romania joined the war in 1916” (Ref. 576A).

 

After the German march on Paris was brought to a halt, the Western Front settled into a static battle of attrition with a trench line that changed little until 1917. In the East, the Russian army successfully fought against the Austro-Hungarian forces but was forced back from East Prussia and Poland by the German army. In the East, the Russian army successfully fought against the Austro-Hungarian forces but was forced back from East Prussia and Poland by the German army” (Ref. 313M).

 

WORLD WAR I CHRONOLOGICAL NARRATIVE AND HISTORY

1917-Allenby Takes Jerusalem

1917 - Bloody April

Nov 1917- Battle of Cambrai

Ref. 568/B

 

Kaiser, Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare

 

“In January 1917, after the Navy pressured the Kaiser, Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare. Britain's secret Royal Navy cryptanalytic group, Room 40, had broken the German diplomatic code. They intercepted a proposal from Berlin (the Zimmermann Telegram) to Mexico to join the war as Germany's ally against the United States, should the U.S. join. The proposal suggested, if the U.S. were to enter the war, Mexico should declare war against the United States and enlist Japan as an ally. This would prevent the United States from joining the Allies and deploying troops to Europe, and would give Germany more time for their unrestricted submarine warfare program to strangle Britain's vital war supplies. In return, the Germans would promise Mexico support in reclaiming Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona” (Ref. 313P).

 

The Russian Empire collapsed in March 1917, and Russia left the war after the October Revolution later that year.

 

“On 6 April 1917, After the sinking of seven U.S. merchant ships by submarines and the publication of the Zimmerman telegram, Wilson called for war on Germany, which the U.S. Congress declared on 6 April 1917” (Ref. 313M & 313N).

 

Figure

 

President Wilson before Congress, announcing the break in official relations with Germany on 3 February 1917.

 

“In 1917, the U.S. Congress gave U.S. citizenship to Puerto Ricans when they were drafted to participate in World War I, as part of the Jones Act. Germany had miscalculated, believing it would be many more months before American soldiers would arrive and that their arrival could be stopped by U-boats” (Ref. 313M & 313O).

Jones Act.

 

“The Jones–Shafroth Act, Pub.L. 64-368, 39 Stat. 951, enacted March 2, 1917, also known as the Jones Act of Puerto Rico or Jones Law of Puerto Rico, was an Act of the United States Congress and President Woodrow Wilson that replaced the Foraker Act of 1900 and established civilian government on the island of Puerto Rico.

 

The people of Puerto Rico were empowered to have a popularly-elected Senate, established a bill of rights, Puerto Ricans were collectively made U.S. citizens, and authorized the election of a Resident Commissioner to a four year term” (Ref. 313O).

 

USS Jupiter (AC-3) arrived Norfolk, Virginia 6 April 1917, and, assigned to Naval Overseas Transportation Service (NOTS)” (Ref. 1-Langley & 72).

 

U.S. declaration of war on Germany

 

“After the British revealed the telegram to the United States, President Wilson, who had won reelection on his keeping the country out of the war, released the captured telegram as a way of building support for U.S. entry into the war. He had previously claimed neutrality, while calling for the arming of U.S. merchant ships delivering munitions to combatant Britain and quietly supporting the British blockading of German ports and mining of international waters, preventing the shipment of food from America and elsewhere to combatant Germany. After submarines sank seven U.S. merchant ships and the publication of the Zimmerman telegram, Wilson called for war on Germany, which the U.S. Congress declared on 6 April 1917” (Ref. 313P).

 

United States declared war with Germany on 6 April 1917

 

“When the United States declared war with Germany on 6 April 1917, the Navy had only one air station - Pensacola.  In the months following entry into the war the number of facilities blossomed as the Navy expanded aviation operations” (Ref. 568).

 

The United States was never formally a member of the Allies

 

“The United States was never formally a member of the Allies but became a self-styled "Associated Power". The United States had a small army” (Ref. 313M).

 

Selective Service Act or Selective Draft Act of 1917

 

“The Selective Service Act or Selective Draft Act (Pub.L. 65-12, 40 Stat. 76, enacted May 18, 1917) authorized the federal government to raise a national army for the American entry into World War I through conscription. It was envisioned in December 1916 and brought to President Woodrow Wilson's attention shortly after the break in relations with Germany in February 1917. The Act itself was drafted by then-Captain (later Brigadier General) Hugh Johnson after the United States entered World War I by declaring war on Germany” (Ref. 313Z5).

 

The United States was never formally a member of the Allies

 

“The United States was never formally a member of the Allies but became a self-styled "Associated Power". The United States had a small army, but, after the passage of the Selective Service Act, it drafted 2.8 million men (313R) and by summer 1918 was sending 10,000 fresh soldiers to France every day” (Ref. 313M).

 

USS Jupiter (AC-3) made two cargo voyages to France in June 1917” (Ref. 1-Langley & 72).

 

Navy-Curtiss NC-4 Flying Boat - USA - Ref. 313Z4

 

The NC-4 was one of four NC (Navy-Curtiss) flying-boats, built during World War I

 

“The NC-4 was one of four NC (Navy-Curtiss) flying-boats, built during World War I originally to provide patrol cover for American shipping in the Atlantic against the attentions of German U-boats. The requirement was drawn up, and the aircraft was designed by the Navy in September 1917. It featured a short 45 ft. (13.72 m) length hull of advanced hydrodynamic design, and was intended to be powered by three engines” (Ref. 313Z4).

 

WW I Chronology 1918 – Ref. 313S

 

Wilson's Fourteen Points

 

“In an address to the U.S. Congress, President Woodrow Wilson outlined a peace program which included the following points: open covenants openly arrived at; absolute freedom of navigation in peace and war; the removal of all economic barriers; the reduction of armaments consistent with domestic security; an impartial adjustment of all colonial claims with the interests of the local population equal to the claims of the government; the evacuation of Russian territory and the free determination of Russian political and national policy; the evacuation and restoration of Belgium; the evacuation and restoration of French territory and the restoration of Alsace-Lorraine to France; readjustments to the Italian border along lines of nationality; opportunity for the autonomous development of the peoples of Austria-Hungary; the evacuation and restoration of Romanian, Serbian, and Montenegrin territory, together with access to the sea for Serbia; secure sovereignty for the Turkish parts of the Ottoman Empire, but other nationalities to receive the opportunity for autonomous development, and the Dardenelles to be opened to the ships of all nations under international guaranties; an independent Poland with free and secure access to the sea; and the establishment of a general association of nations to afford mutual guaranties of political independence and territorial integrity to both great and small powers. President Wilson's Fourteen Points laid out the basis for the post-war peace and the creation of the League of Nations” Ref. 313S).

 

First active U.S. participation in WW I

 

“The United States was never formally a member of the Allies but became a self-styled "Associated Power". The United States had a small army, but it drafted four million men and by summer 1918 was sending 10,000 fresh soldiers to France every day. In 1917, the U.S. Congress gave U.S. citizenship to Puerto Ricans when they were drafted to participate in World War I, as part of the Jones Act. Germany had miscalculated, believing it would be many more months before they would arrive and that the arrival could be stopped by U-boats” (Ref. 313M & 313P).

 

The United States Navy sent a battleship group to Scapa Flow to join with the British Grand Fleet

 

“The United States Navy sent a battleship group to Scapa Flow to join with the British Grand Fleet, destroyers to Queenstown, Ireland and submarines to help guard convoys. Several regiments of U.S. Marines were also dispatched to France. The British and French wanted U.S. units used to reinforce their troops already on the battle lines and not waste scarce shipping on bringing over supplies. The U.S. rejected the first proposition and accepted the second. General John J. Pershing, American Expeditionary Force (AEF) commander, refused to break up U.S. units to be used as reinforcements for British Empire and French units. As an exception, he did allow African-American combat regiments such as the Harlem Hellfighters to be used in French divisions. AEF doctrine called for the use of frontal assaults, which had long since been discarded by British Empire and French commanders because of the large loss of life” (Ref. 313M & 313P).

WW I Chronology 1918 – Ref. 313S

 

WORLD WAR I CHRONOLOGICAL NARRATIVE AND HISTORY

March 1918-Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

April 21 1918 - Red Baron Shot Down

May 15 1918 - Air Mail Service Begun

July 1918-Battle of Marne

September 23 1918 - Rickenbacker Downs Two Planes

 

Ref. 568/B

 

Britain’s Royal Navy’s first vessel built specifically as an aircraft carrier from keel up was also named HMS Hermes by the Royal Navy. She was laid down in 1918” (Ref. 646 or 623).

Armistices and capitulations

 

“The collapse of the Central Powers came swiftly. Bulgaria was the first to sign an armistice with the Allies, on 30 September 1918 at Saloniki. Under the terms of the agreement, the Bulgarian army was immediately demobilized and its equipment was transferred to the Allies. The Bulgarians agreed to evacuate all Greek and Serbian territory under their control and turn over all of their transportation assets to the Allies. In addition, the Bulgarians had to open their territory to Allied military operations” (Ref. 313M & 313S).

 

Navy-Curtiss NC-4 Flying Boat - USA - Ref. 313Z4

The first four aircraft were numbered separately NC-1 to NC-4

 

“The first four aircraft were numbered separately NC-1 to NC-4, but the war was ending even as flight testing began. The NC-1 (three 400 hp Liberty engines) flew for the first time on October 4, 1918” (Ref. 313Z4).

 

“On 24 October 1918, the Italians began a push which rapidly recovered territory lost after the Battle of Caporetto. This culminated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, which marked the end of the Austro-Hungarian Army as an effective fighting force. The offensive also triggered the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. During the last week of October, declarations of independence were made in Budapest, Prague, and Zagreb” (Ref. 313M & 313S). 

 

“On 29 October 1918, the imperial authorities asked Italy for an armistice. But the Italians continued advancing, reaching Trento, Udine, and Trieste” (Ref. 313M & 313S). 

 

“On 30 October 1918, the Ottoman Empire capitulated at Moudros (Armistice of Mudros) as a result of a Revolution that broke out in Vienna as the German National Council emerged as the new government for the German provinces of Austria” (Ref. 313M & 313S).

“On 3 November 1918, Austria–Hungary sent a flag of truce to ask for an Armistice. The terms, arranged by telegraph with the Allied Authorities in Paris, were communicated to the Austrian commander and accepted. The Armistice with Austria was signed in the Villa Giusti, near Padua, on 3 November. Austria and Hungary signed separate armistices following the overthrow of the Habsburg Monarchy” (Ref. 313M & 313S).

 

USS Jupiter (AC-3) made two cargo voyages to France in June 1917 and November 1918” (Ref. 1-Langley & 72).

 

German Revolution of 1918–1919

 

“Following the outbreak of the German Revolution of 1918–1919, a republic was proclaimed on 9 November 1918. The Kaiser fled to the Netherlands.

 

Germany, which had its own trouble with revolutionaries at this point, agreed to a cease-fire on 11 November 1918, an armistice with Germany was signed in a railroad carriage at Compiègne. At 11 am on 11 November 1918 — "the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month" — a ceasefire came into effect. Opposing armies on the Western Front began to withdraw from their positions” (Ref. 313M & 313S).

 

The Last Hours of WW I – Ref. 313T

 

The 28th Battalion was passing through Bois la Haut at 9:00 a.m. when the battalion received the cease fire order” (Ref. The Story of the Royal Regina Rifles by Stewart A.G. Mein - Pages 60-61 - Up the Johns).

 

Hostilities will cease at 11:00 hours on November 11th - Troops will stand fast on the line reached at that time which will be reported to Corps Headquarters - Strictest precautions will be maintained - There will be no intercourse of any kind with the enemy.

 

This meant that the advance was to continue until that hour. The troops were then to halt and establish outposts to secure the line they had reached and have no dealings with the enemy. Brigadier Alex Ross drafted an order containing the original text of the order received and added that officers were to use their discretion about involving troops under their commands in heavy fighting.

 

He also noted that troops should secure some habitable accommodation before stopping because there was little shelter in the area in which the battalion was operating. This he sent forward by runner to the troops in the forward line” (Ref. The Story of the Royal Regina Rifles by Stewart A.G. Mein - Pages 60-61 - Up the Johns).

 

The 28th  Battalion had two objectives for November 11 and was able to reach both before 11:00. No casualties were taken in occupying the village of Havre and overcoming some late resistance in a dash to the Canal du Centre. 'B' Company was in the lead through the village and the advance to the canal followed by 'A' Company, then C and D Companies close behind. German soldiers were clearly seen retreating on the other side of the canal and over the high ground to the east.(1) The Battalion took up a defensive position at the Canal du Centre, position four and a half miles northeast of Mons” (Ref. The Story of the Royal Regina Rifles by Stewart A.G. Mein - Page 18 - To Seize the Victory).

 

Just after the 28th had reached the line of the Canal du Centre, #256265 Private George Lawrence Price of 'A' Company led a patrol across to the far side of the canal.(1) The 20 year old Nova Scotian was accompanied on this patrol by #105410 Private Arthur Barrett "Art" Goodmurphy, and two others from A Company.(1) George Price had joined the 28th Battalion as part of a reinforcement draft nine months before. Some sources state that he originally enlisting in 210th (Legion of Frontiersmen) Battalion (1), however his service number (5) and records indicate he actually enlisted in the 1st Depot Battalion, Saskatchewan Regiment. Arthur Goodmurphy was a fair haired 22 year old and originally enlisted in the 68th battalion in his home town of Regina on November 29, 1915” (Ref. 313T – full article continued at reference).

 

The last soldiers to die in World War I – Ref 313U

 

“American Henry Gunther was killed 60 seconds before the armistice came into force while charging astonished German troops who were aware the Armistice was nearly upon them” (Ref. 313M & Ref 313U).

 

“The last British soldier to die was Pte George Edwin Ellison. The last casualty of the war was a German, Lieutenant Thomas, who, after 11 am, was walking towards the line to inform Americans who had not yet been informed of the Armistice that they would be vacating the buildings behind them” (Ref. 313V).

 

Allied superiority and the stab-in-the-back legend, November 1918
 

“In November 1918 the Allies had ample supplies of men and materiel to invade Germany. Yet at the time of the armistice, no Allied force had crossed the German frontier; the Western Front was still almost 900 mi (1,400 km) from Berlin; and the Kaiser's armies had retreated from the battlefield in good order. These factors enabled Hindenburg and other senior German leaders to spread the story that their armies had not really been defeated. This resulted in the stab-in-the-back legend” (Ref. 313M; 313Y & 313Z).

 

"Stabbed in the Back! The past and future of a right-wing myth" - Ref. 313Y

 

Imperial Germany and the Great War, 1914–1918 – Ref. 313Z

 

“The stab-in-the-back legend attributed Germany's defeat not to its inability to continue fighting (even though up to a million soldiers were suffering from the 1918 flu pandemic and unfit to fight), but to the public's failure to respond to its "patriotic calling" and the supposed intentional sabotage of the war effort, particularly by Jews, Socialists, and Bolsheviks” (Ref. 313M).

 

Navy-Curtiss NC-4 Flying Boat - USA - Ref. 313Z4

 

The first four aircraft were numbered separately NC-1 to NC-4

 

“The first four aircraft were numbered separately NC-1 to NC-4, but the war was ending even as flight testing began. The NC-1 (three 400 hp Liberty engines) flew for the first time on October 4, 1918, and on November 25 gave striking proof of its load-lifting abilities by carrying 51 people on a single flight -- a world record. Nevertheless, the three-engined installation was considered inadequate for transatlantic flying, and completion of the second, third and fourth aircraft was delayed while a fourth engine was included in the design” (Ref. 313Z4).

 

Allies enter Germany

 

“On 1 December 1918, Allies enter Germany” (Ref. 576A).

 

“The occupation of the Rhineland took place following the Armistice. The occupying armies consisted of American, Belgian, British and French forces” (Ref. 313M & 313S).

 

World War I Short Summary

 

World War I (WWI) was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. It was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until the start of World War II in 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter. It involved world's great powers” (Ref. 313M & 313W).

 

“Germans lost to two assembled opposing alliances: the Allies (based on the Triple Entente of the United Kingdom, France and Russia) and the Central Powers (originally centered around the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy; but, as Austria–Hungary had taken the offensive against the agreement, Italy did not enter into the war)” (Ref. 313M & 313X).

 

“These alliances both reorganized (Italy fought for the Allies), and expanded as more nations entered the war. Ultimately more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilized in one of the largest wars in history” (Ref. 313X)

“More than 9 million combatants were killed, largely because of enormous increases in lethality of weapons, thanks to new technology, without corresponding improvements in protection or mobility. It was the sixth-deadliest conflict in world history, subsequently paving the way for various political changes such as revolutions in many of the nations involved” (Ref. 313M & 313Z1).

 

“Long-term causes of the war included the imperialistic foreign policies of the great powers of Europe, including the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire, the British Empire, the French Republic, and Italy. Several alliances formed over the previous decades were invoked, so within weeks the major powers were at war; via their colonies, the conflict soon spread around the world. The war had ended in victory for the Allies” (Ref. 313M).

 

“During World War I, Paris was at the forefront of the war effort, having been spared a German invasion by the French and British victory at the First Battle of the Marne in 1914. In 1918–1919, it was the scene of Allied victory parades and peace negotiations. In the inter-war period, Paris was famed for its cultural and artistic communities and its nightlife” (Ref. 313Z5).

 

“In the East, the Russian army successfully fought against the Austro-Hungarian forces but was forced back from East Prussia and Poland by the German army. Additional fronts opened after the Ottoman Empire joined the war in 1914, Italy and Bulgaria in 1915 and Romania in 1916. The Russian Empire collapsed in March 1917, and Russia left the war after the October Revolution later that year.

 

After a 1918 German offensive along the western front, the Allies drove back the German armies in a series of successful offensives and United States forces began entering the trenches. Germany, which had its own trouble with revolutionaries at this point, agreed to a cease-fire on 11 November 1918, later known as Armistice Day. The war had ended in victory for the Allies” (Ref. 313M).

 

“Events on the home fronts were as tumultuous as on the battle fronts, as the participants tried to mobilize their manpower and economic resources to fight a total war. By the end of the war, four major imperial powers — the German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires — ceased to exist. The successor states of the former two lost a great amount of territory, while the latter two were dismantled entirely. The map of central Europe was redrawn into several smaller states” (Ref. 313M & 313Z2).

 

“The League of Nations was formed in the hope of preventing another such conflict. The European nationalism spawned by the war and the breakup of empires, the repercussions of Germany's defeat and problems with the Treaty of Versailles are agreed to be factors contributing to World War II” (Ref. 313M & 313Z3).

 

“The Cruiser and Transport Force served in Atlantic waters during World War I moving the American Expeditionary Force to Europe. United States Battleship Division Nine joined the Grand Fleet in the UK” (Ref. 313B; 313B1 & 313B8).

 

“By the end of World War I, the U.S. Navy had grown in strength to being second only to Great Britains Navy. During the Washington Disarmament Conference of 1921, the U.S. agreed to dismantle part of the Navy, and seven out of nine battleships under construction were broken up” (Ref. 313B6).

 

“After a 1918 German offensive along the western front, the Allies drove back the German armies in a series of successful offensives and United States forces began entering the trenches” (Ref. 313I).

 

                                                WORLD WAR I AVIATION

Great                                                       Great Britain

Airco D.H.2

Airco D.H.4

DH4

Airco D.H.5

Airco D.H.9a

DH9/9a

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.10

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.8

Avro 504

Avro 504k

B.E.12

B.E.2

BAT FK.23

Bristol F2b

Bristol FB5

Bristol M1C

FBA

Heavy Tanks

Male Tank

RAF BE.2

RAF FE.8

RAF RE.8

RAF SE.5a

RAF SE.5e

Sopwith 1-1/2 Strutter

Sopwith Camel

Sopwith Pup

Sopwith Snipe

Sopwith Tabloid

Sopwith Triplane

Vickers FB.5

Vickers Vimy

Whippet Tank

Whippet Tank

Horse Drawn Ambulance

Germany                                                    Germany

Albatros D.I

Albatros D.I

Albatros D.II

Albatros D.II

Albatros D.III

Albatros D.III

Albatros D.V

 

Aviatik B.I

Albatros B.I

Albatros D.V/Va

A7V

AAAG Aviatik C.I

AEG G.IV

Fokker Dr.I

Fokker DR.I (Dreidecker)

Fokker E.III

Fokker D.VIII/E.V

Fokker D.VIII

Fokker D.VII

Fokker D.VII

Fokker Spin 1913

Friedrichshafen FF.49

Halberstadt Cl.IV

Halberstadt C.V

Hannover Cl.V

Junkers D.I

Pfalz D.XII

 

LVG C.VI

Zeppelin

Zeppelin Staaken R.VI

A.E.G. C.II

Fokker E.I (Eindecker)

Halberstadt D.II

Hannover CL.IIIa

Junkers CL.I

Junkers J.I

Pfalz D.III

Pfalz D.XII

Rumpler C.IV

Siemens-Schuckert D.IV

Taube

L.V.G. C.II

Gotha G.V

 

 

 

 

                                                          Austria-Hungary

Aviatik D.I

Avatik D.I

Hansa-Brandenburg B.I

Hansa-Brandenburg W.33

Knoller C.II

Phönix D.III

Hansa-Brandenburg D.I

Phönix D.I

 

 

 

 

                                                WORLD WAR I AVIATION

USA                                                   United States

Curtiss JN-4

Curtiss JN4 "Jenny"

Packard Lusac

Kettering Bug

LWF V Tractor

Standard J-1

Thomas Morse S4C

94th Aero Squadron Pilots

 

 

France                                                           France

Blériot

Blériot XI

Breguet Aircraft

Breguet 14

Breguet 14

Caudron C.60

Caudron G.3

Caudron G.4

Caudron G.4

Deperdussin

Donnet-Lévêque

Farman F.46

Farman HF.6

 

Farman HF.20

Farman MF.7

Farman MF.11

Ft.17

Hanriot HD.1

Hanriot HD.1

Farman MF.7

Morane Saulnier
Type AI

Nieuport 4

Nieuport 11

Nieuport 11

Nieuport 12

Nieuport 12

Nieuport 16

Nieuport 17

Nieuport 17

Nieuport 23

Nieuport 23

Nieuport 27

Nieuport 28

Nieuport 28

Salmson 2

SPAD 7

SPAD VII

SPAD 12

SPAD XII

SPAD 13

SPAD XIII

SPAD 16

Nieuport 81

Schneider Tank

Hanriot HD.1

Dorand AR.1

Voisin LAS

Infantry

Aerial Equipment

Dorand AR.1

Morane-Saulnier P

Maurice Farman S.11

Morane-Saulnier L

Morane-Saulnier N

 

 

 

Italy                                                          Italy

Caproni Ca.4 Series

Pomilio PE

Ansaldo A1

Caproni Ca.36

Macchi aircraft

                                                                 Russia

Bolshoi Bal'tisky B

Sikorsky Ilya Mourometz A

Sikorsky Ilya Mourometz E

Sikorsky Ilya Mourometz V

 

Russia                                                        Denmark

Glenten

Nielsen-Winther

 

 

 

                                                                   IRAS

Anatra Anasal

Sikorsky S.16

 

 

 

                                                           Other nations

Spain Monocoque II

Sweden Tummelisa

Swiss Hafeli DH1

 

 

 

                                                WORLD WAR I AVIATION

                                                           Aircraft Engines

Antoinette

Anzani

Austro-Daimler

Beardmore 120hp

Maybach

Beardmore 160hp

Bentley

Benz

BHP Puma

RAF 1

BMW D.IIIa

Clerget 150hp

Curtiss OX-5

Curtiss V-12

Rolls Royce

FIAT

Gnôme 50hp

Gnôme Monosoupape

Gotha Engine

Salmson P-9

      Green

Hispano-Suiza

LeRhône

Liberty

SPA

Mercedes

Oberursel

Opel Argus

Siemens Halske III

Renault 80hp

RAF 4A

Renault R.12

Miscellaneous

Balloons

Caquot Type R

                                                                Vehicles

Crossley

Ford Model T

King Armored Car

London Bus

Pre WWI

Pavesi Tractor

Tractor

Motorcycles

Miscellaneous

 

                                                               Artillery

Great Britain

France

Germany

Norway

Russia

US

Pre WWI

Unidentified

 

 

 

                                                 Machine guns and small arms

Austro-Hungary

Great Britain

Denmark

France

Germany

Italy

US

Unidentified

 

 

                                                               Museums

Kevin Barrett's Rockliffe Images

Otis Goodin's Images

Musée de l'Air

Quantico Museum

Fleet Air Arm Museum

Rhinebeck Aerodrome

Champlin Fighter Museum

Seattle Museum of Flight

 

 

                                                                Various

David Burke's Images

Charles Hart's Images

Lee Mensinger's Images

Ross Moorhouse's Images

Cameras

Ernest Thomas' Images

Albatros Dr.I

Radios

Ernest Thomas' Images

Propellors

Norwegian Taube

Flugsport Drawing Scans

Modeling Tools & Procedures

Misc. Signal Corps Photos

Pre-War

Bombs British

Bombs German

Bombs US

Bomb sights

Miscellanea

Ref. 589 & 590 are combined

 

WORLD WAR I AVIATION

AEG C IV

AIRCO DH2

AIRCO DH4

AIRCO DH10

ALBATROS B3

ALBATROS C3

ALBATROS DV

ALBATROS DVA

ALBATROS J1

AVIATIK B2

AVIATIK C1A

BEARDMORE WB3

BLERIOT SPAD S51

BRISTOL F2B

BRISTOL 105 BULLDOG

CAPRONI CA1 / CA3

CURTISS JN4

DORAND AR1

FARMAN F40

FIAT CR1

FIAT CR20

FIAT CR20BIS

FOKKER C1

FOKKER C5

FOKKER C10

FOKKER D7

FOKKER DR1

FOKKER E3

GOTHA G5

HALBERSTADT D. IV

HANDLEY PAGE 0/10(+)

HANSA-BRANDENBURG C1

HANSA-BRANDENBURG W12

HANSA-BRANDENBURG W33

NIEUPORT 11

NIEUPORT 17

NIEUPORT 27

NIEUPORT 28

NIEUPORT-DELAGE NID 29

PFALZ D3

POTEZ 25 A.2

RAF BE2c

RAF FE2b

RAF RE8

RAF SE5A

SPAD S.VII

SPAD S.XIII

SHORT 184

SIEMENS-SCHUCKERT D3

SOPWITH F1

SOPWITH 2F1

SOPWITH PUP

SOPWITH SNIPE

SOPWITH 1 1/2 STRUTTER

SOPWITH TABLOID

SOPWITH TRIPLANE

ZEPPELIN-STAAKEN R-SERIES

 

 

 

 

 

WORLD WAR I RESOURCES

RESOURCE

REF.

RESOURCE

REF.

RESOURCE

REF.

World War I "The Great War"

576A

US Navy and Marine Corps World War One Aviation Stations

568

Curtiss-Wright Corporation - A Brief History

569

Air Power: The Development of Naval Aviation

574

subavi - Aviation Resources

587

The League of WWI Aviation Historians

588

World War I Photo Archive

589

WW I AIRCRAFT

590

"Airplane World War I Aircraft"

591

WW I -

592

First World War.com - A multimedia history of World War One

593

Encyclopedia
of the
First World War

594

Naval Air History & Early Flying Machines

622I

 

USS Jupiter (AC-3) was back in Norfolk, Virginia on 23 January 1919” (Ref. 1-Langley & 72).

 

USS Jupiter (AC-3) sailed for Brest, France, 8 March 1919 for coaling duty in European waters to expedite the return of victorious veterans to the United States” (Ref. 1-Langley & 72).

 

Navy-Curtiss NC-4 Flying Boat - USA - Ref. 313Z4

 

“First flights were made on April 12 (NC-2), April 23 (NC-3) and April 30 (NC-4), NC-2 having been modified with its engine mounted as tandem pairs was found to be an unsatisfactory configuration, while the other two aircraft retained the between-wings separate tractor layout of three engines and had the fourth mounted, as a pusher, at the rear of the hull. It was decided to enter the Navy-Curtiss machines for the transatlantic attempt, for which they were redesignated NC-TA.

 

On March 27th, the NC-1's right wing had sustained storm damage, and was given the wing from NC-2. The NC-2 whose engine layout had proved unsatisfactory was again cannibalized to supply parts for the NC-1, when its left wing was damaged by fire on May 5th, in a hangar at Rockaway, New York” (Ref. 313Z4).

 

United States Navy History, focusing on the Atlantic, 8th, 2nd and 4th Fleets

Part I (1778 to 1918)

Part II (1919 to 1989)

Part III (1990 to 2011)

Part IV (2nd, Fleet Forces Command & 4th Fleet

(8th and 2nd decommissioned)

United States Navy History, focusing on the Atlantic, 8th, 2nd and 4th Fleets

Part I (1778 to 1918)

 USS CORAL SEA (CV 43)

Operations Evening Light and Eagle Claw, A Sailors tale of his Tour of duty in the U.S. Navy (August 1977 to February 1983)

 

A Sailors tale of his Tour of duty in the U.S. Navy - Operation Evening Light And Eagle Claw -

 

Book - ISBN NO.

978-1-4276-0454-5

EBook - ISBN NO.

978-1-329-15473-5

 

Operations Evening Light and Eagle Claw (24 April 1980) Iran and Air Arm History (1941 to Present)

 

Operations Evening Light and Eagle Claw (24 April 1980) Iran and Air Arm History (1941 to Present)

 

Book ISBN NO.

xxxxxxxxxxxxx

EBook ISBN NO.

978-1-329-19945-3

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA  Vol. I (10 July 1944 to 31 December 1975)

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA Vol. I (10 July 1944 to 31 December 1975) -

 

Book ISBN NO.

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EBook ISBN NO.

978-1-329-54596-0

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. II (1 January 1976 to 25 August 1981)

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. II (1 January 1976 to 25 August 1981) -

 

Book ISBN NO.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

EBook ISBN NO.

978-1-329-54790-2

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. III (20 August 1981 to 26 April 1990)

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. III (20 August 1981 to 26 April 1990) -

 

Book ISBN NO.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

EBook ISBN NO.

978-1-329-55111-4

 

U. S. AIRCRAFT CARRIER SHIP HISTORY (1920 to 2016)

 

U. S. AIRCRAFT

CARRIER SHIP

HISTORY (1920 to 2016)

 

Book - ISBN NO.

978-1-4276-0465-1

EBook - ISBN NO.

978-1-365-25019-4

Library of Congress

Control Number: 

2008901616

(Book Version)

 

U. S. AIRCRAFT CARRIERS REDESIGNATED AND OR RECLASSIFIED (1953 to 2016)

 

U. S. AIRCRAFT

CARRIERS

REDESIGNATED

AND OR

RECLASSIFIED

(1953 to 2016)

 

BOOK - ISBN NO.

978-1-4276-0452-1

EBook - ISBN NO.

978-1-365-25041-5

Library of Congress

(Book Version)

2008901619