U. S. AIRCRAFT CARRIERS RECORD OF

EAST/WEST COAST TRANSFERS AND TRANSITS

(Panama Canal, Cape Horn, Cape of Good Hope and Suez Canal)

 

Summary Total - September 1945 to Present

 

U. S. Aircraft Carrier Deployments and or both Panama Canal, Cape Horn, Cape of Good Hope and Suez Canal Transits and East /West Coast Transfers

Panama Canal, Cape Horn, Cape of Good Hope and Suez Canal Transits and East Coast/West Coast Transfers

 

Part I of VIII – 1928 to 1945

Part II of VIII – 1946 to 1969

Part III of VIII – 1970 to 1989

Part IV of VIII – 1990 to 1993

Part V of VIII – 1994 to 2000

Part VI of VIII – 2001 to 2005

Part VII of VIII – 2006 to 2012

Part VIII of VIII – 2013 to Present

 

1994

 

Operation Deny Flight

 

“At the January 1994 Brussels Summit, Alliance leaders reaffirmed their readiness, under the authority of the UN Security Council and in accordance with the decisions of the North Atlantic Council of 2 and 9 August 1993, to carry out air strikes in order to prevent the strangulation of Sarajevo, the safe areas and other threatened areas in Bosnia-Herzegovina” (Ref. 540).

 

Valiant Blitz 90

 

“During November 1993 - January 1994, Marine Corps units deployed to Operation Valiant Blitz, Pohang, South Korea” (Ref. 1144).

 

Operation Deny Flight

 

“On 9 February 1994, the North Atlantic Council condemned the continuing siege of Sarajevo and decided to carry out air strikes against any further use of artillery and mortars in and around Sarajevo” (Ref. 540).

 

“The heavy weapons of any of the parties remaining in an area within 20 kilometres of the centre of the city after 20 February 1994 would be subject to NATO air strikes conducted in close coordination with UNPROFOR” (Ref. 540).

 

“On 21 February 1994, following the expiry of the above deadline, NATO's Secretary General announced that the objectives set on 9 February were being met and that UN and NATO officials had recommended that air power should not be used at that stage” (Ref. 540).

 

“On 28 February 1994, four warplanes violating the no-fly zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina were shot down by NATO aircraft. This was the first military engagement ever undertaken by the Alliance” (Ref. 540).

 

Operation Southern Watch

 

“Although Iraq challenged the no-fly zone several times in 1992 and 1993, the first nine months of 1994 passed without incident. Due to the relative calm in the Operation SOUTHERN WATCH area, Joint Task Force - South West Asia (JTF-SWA) began a force drawdown in February 1994, with the redeployment of the 49th Fighter Wing and other USCENTAF assets to CONUS from Khamis Mushiat, Saudi Arabia. The operation consisted of a four-phased redeployment of personnel and equipment, and involved the movement in February of 8 F-117's, approximately 300 personnel, and 958 short tons of equipment to home stations in the United States. In March 1994, JTF-SWA continued the drawdown of forces in support of Operation SOUTHERN WATCH by redeploying 3 F-16, 3 F-15E, and 3 F-15C aircraft from Dhahran, Saudi Arabia to the United States” (Ref. 457).

 

Operation Deny Flight

 

“On 10 and 11 April 1994, following a request from the UN Force Command, NATO aircraft provided Close Air Support to protect UN personnel in Gorazde, a UN-designated safe area in Bosnia-Herzegovina” (Ref. 540).

 

Operation Provide Comfort

 

“On 14 April 1994, two United States Air Force F-15 Eagle fighters on a Operation Provide Comfort mistakenly downed two United Army Blackhawk helicopters carrying twenty-six Allied personnel, killing all aboard” (Ref. 453).

 

Operation Deny Flight

 

“In response to a written request by the UN Secretary General, the North Atlantic Council took further decisions on 22 April 1994, to support the UN in its efforts to end the siege of Gorazde and to protect other safe areas. These decisions were made public in two separate statements, issued by the Council.(1) Unless Bosnian Serb attacks against the safe areas of Gorazde ceased immediately, and Bosnian Serb forces withdrew three kilometres from the centre of the city by 00:01 GMT on 24 April, and unless humanitarian relief convoys and medical assistance teams were allowed free access by the same date, the Council announced that the Commander in Chief of Allied Forces Southern Europe was authorised to conduct air strikes against Bosnian Serb heavy weapons and other military targets within a 20-kilometre radius of Gorazde, in accordance with the procedural arrangements worked out between NATO and UNPROFOR following the Council's decisions of 2 and 9 August 1993” (Ref. 540).

 

“It further declared that after 00:01 GMT on 27 April 1994 specified military assets and installations would be subject to air strikes if any Bosnian Serb heavy weapons remained within a 20-kilometre exclusion zone around the centre of Gorazde. Regarding other UN-designated safe areas (Bihac, Srebrenica, Tuzla, and Zepa), the Council authorised air strikes if these areas were attacked by heavy weapons from any range. These other safe areas could also become exclusion zones if, in the common judgement of the NATO and UN Military Commanders, there was a concentration or movement of heavy weapons within a radius of 20 kilometres around them. These measures would be carried out using agreed coordination procedures with UNPROFOR (the so-called "dual key" system)” (Ref. 540).

 

“On 5 August 1994, NATO aircraft attacked a target within the Sarajevo Exclusion Zone at the request of UNPROFOR. The air strikes were ordered following agreement between NATO and UNPROFOR, after Bosnian Serbs from a weapons collection site near Sarajevo seized weapons” (Ref. 540).

 

“On 22 September 1994, following a Bosnian Serb attack on an UNPROFOR vehicle near Sarajevo, NATO aircraft carried out an air strike against a Bosnian Serb tank, at the request of UNPROFOR” (Ref. 540).

 

Operation Southern Watch

 

SOUTHERN WATCH operations continued without incident until October, 1994, when Iraq began troop movements south towards Kuwait, prompting U.S. and coalition forces to react with force deployments into theater under Operation VIGILANT WARRIOR. In October 1994, Hussein, upset about continued U.N. sanctions, began a series of verbal threats. He insisted on a date upon which the sanctions would end. He deployed a significant number of armored vehicles and mechanized infantry troops to Southern Iraq and to the Kuwaiti border. Coalition forces responded with increased surveillance operations, deployment of additional aircraft and forces to the AOR and a firm resolve to deter Iraqi aggression, and if necessary, defend the Arabian Peninsula from attacking Iraqi forces. The coalition governments, at the same time, said they would not be intimidated into deciding an end-date for the sanctions. Hussein insisted he had the right to move his troops anywhere he wanted to within his own borders but decided to withdraw them in response to appeals from friendly parties in the Gulf region. Iraqi radio reported that the U.S. had backed down” (Ref. 457).

 

Operation Vigilant Warrior (14 Oct to 21 Dec 1994)

 

“Since Desert Storm, Third Army has responded five times to contingency requirements to deploy command, control and support major Army forces to deter Iraqi adventurism. Each operation underscored the need for vigilance and quick response and reinforced the value of pre-positioned equipment and limited forward presence in offsetting the strategic time/distance challenges inherent in winning the "race for Kuwait."

 

As of 31 December 1991 USCENTAF had about 5,000 personnel and 80 aircraft still assigned in the AOR. This number continued to drop during 1992. By the middle of that year, about 3,500 USCENTAF personnel remained in the AOR.

 

When Iraq began moving ground forces toward Kuwait in October 1994, President Bill Clinton ordered an immediate response. Within days, the new USCENTAF Commander, Lt Gen John Jumper and most of his key staff had deployed to Riyadh, where he took command of JTF-SWA. This operation, called "Vigilant Warrior," also involved the "plus up" of USCENTAF air assets to more than 170 aircraft and 6,500 personnel. Iraq soon recalled its troops and the crisis passed, but the US decided to retain some 120 aircraft and 5,000 personnel in-theatre in case Hussein repeated his bluff. As an additional measure, USCENTAF also agreed to beddown A-10 aircraft in Kuwait itself for the first time.

 

The US Army has pre-positioned Army War Reserves Set 5 (AWR-5) at Camp Doha, Kuwait, to meet this time/distance challenge. AWR-5 is a full, heavy brigade set of equipment that is ready to fight as fast as troops can be flown into theater. ARCENT-Kuwait is able to issue at least a battalion set of that equipment every 24 hours. The Army routinely exercises that equipment at least twice a year during the INTRINSIC ACTION exercise series with brigade command posts and battalion task forces (TFs) from the 1st Cavalry Division, Fort Hood, Texas, and 24th Infantry Division (ID) (Mechanized) [M], now redesignated the 3d ID(M), Fort Stewart, Georgia. The 4th ID(M), Fort Hood, and the 1st Armored Division, Bad Kreuznach, Germany, also participated.

 

In October 1994, ARCENT again was called upon to command, control and generate Army forces to deploy to Kuwait during Operation Vigilant Warrior. Operation Vigilant Warrior was initiated in response to Saddam Hussein's "saber rattling" and posturing of a significant Iraqi military force along the Iraqi-Kuwaiti border” (Ref. 517).

 

“On the diplomatic front, the battle group helped reaffirm ties with traditional allies and foster new friendships with emerging nations through more than 96 bilateral and multilateral military exercises and exchanges with 20 nations” (Ref. 555). 
 

Operation Deny Flight

 

“On 28 October 1994, following meetings in New York between UN and NATO officials, a joint statement was issued on understandings which had been reached concerning the use of NATO air power in Bosnia-Herzegovina in support of the relevant UN resolutions” (Ref. 540).

 

AIRCRAFT CARRIER

DEP

AIR WING

T.C.

DEPART

RETURN

Days at  Sea

USS George Washington (CVN-73) - 2nd, 6th, 5th & Central Command (1st Arabian / Persian Gulf dep.) (1st & 2nd voyage) (1st, 2nd, 3rd & 4th Red Sea & Gulf of Aden))

NorLant

1st Med

Ionian Sea Adriatic Sea

ODF

OPP

1st Suez Canal

1st  OSW

2nd Suez Canal

Med

ODF

OSG

3rd Suez Canal

1st EAG

4th Suez Canal

Med

ODF

OPP

OSG

NorLant

CVW-7

AG

20 May 1994

17 Nov 1994

Europe

Bosina

Middle East

Iraq no Fly Zone & Kuwait

Persian Gulf

2nd FWFD

74-days

Participated in the commemoration of the 50th anniversary of D-Day across the English Channel, Peacekeeping and sanctions-enforcement operations including Provide Promise and Operation Sharp Guard during the crisis in Bosnia, operating with  NATO supporting request of UNPROFOR, operating with  NATO supporting request of UNPROFOR, Operation Deny Flight, enforcing the no-fly zone, provided close air support to UN troops, and conducted approved air strikes under a "dual-key" command arrangement with the UN, and her 1st Operation Southern Watch, enforcing the no-fly zone south of the 32nd parallel in Iraq and Operation Vigilant Warrior, President Bill Clinton’s immediate response to Iraq moving ground forces toward Kuwait in October 1994 and involved the "plus up" of USCENTAF air assets to more than 170 aircraft and 6,500 personnel under command of JTF-SWA.

 

Ports of call include: Plymouth, Portsmouth, Southampton, Torquay, Portland, Weymouth and Milford-Haven; Antalya, Turkey; Corfu, Greece; Haifa, Israel; Rhodes Greece and Mina Jebel, Ali/Dubai.

 

Squadrons: VF-143, F-14B; VF-142 (*1), F-14B; VFA-136, FA-18C(N); VFA-131, FA-18C(N); VA-34; A-6E; VAW-121, E-2C; HS-5, SH-3H; VAQ-140; EA-6B; VS-31, S-3B; VQ-6 Det. B, ES-3A.

 

(*1) disestablished on Apr.30, 1995

 

USS San Jacinto (CG-56) joined George Washington task force.

USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) - 2nd, 6th, NAVCENT & 7th (2nd Arabian / Persian Gulf dep. & 3rd voy. & 5th & 6th Arabian Sea voy.)

NorLant

8th Med

Adriatic Sea 5th Suez Canal    1st OSW

OVW

6th Suez Canal

JF III

Med

Adriatic Sea ODF

OSG

OPP

Med

NorLant

CVW-3

AC

20 Oct 1994

13 Apr 1995

Europe

Middle East

Bosnia-Herzegovina

Iraq no Fly Zone

Persian Gulf

15th FWFD

176-days

With COMCRUDESGRU Eight Team and more than 400 women embarked

1st Operation Southern Watch, enforcing the no-fly zone south of the 32nd parallel in Iraq and Operation Vigilant Warrior, a planned operation to enforce the American ultimatum to the Iraqis to withdrawal threatening armored columns from the Kuwaiti borders, Juniper Falconry III with the Israelis, Operation Deny Flight, Implementation Force (IFOR) assumed responsibilities for military aspects of the peace agreement on Bosnia-Herzegovina, Operation Sharp Guard enforced UN resolutions by inspecting or diverting violators, and could become very treacherous, as when NATO sailors seized Maltese-registered tanker Lido II on 1 May 1994 while she attempted to violate the maritime embargo, and tangled with Yugoslav naval forces, which they drove off as they brought Lido II into Italian Waters, Operation Provide Promise involved air transport and air drops of relief supplies to the people of Bosnia-Herzegovina

 

Ports of call included: Cannes, France; Trieste, Italy; Naples, Italy; Haifa, Israel; Antalya, Turkey; Rhodes, Greece and Palma, Mallorca, Spain.

 

Squadrons: VF-32, Swordsmen, Fighter Squadron, F-14A; VFA-37, Ragin Bulls, Strike Fighter Squadron, FA-18C(N); VFA-105, Gunslingers, Strike Fighter Squadron, FA-18C(N); VA-75, Sunday Panchers, Attack Squadron, A-6E; VAW-126, Seahawks - Carrier Airborne Early Warning Squadron, E-2C; HS-7, Dusty Dogs, Helicopter Anti-Submarine Squadron, SH-3H; VAQ-130, Zappers, Tactical Electronics Warfare Squadron, EA-6B; VS-22, Checkmates, Sea Control Squadron, S-3B; VQ-6 Det. C, Black Ravens, Fleet Air Reconnaissance Squadron, ES-3A and VRC-40 Det. 2, Rawhides, Fleet Logistics Support Squadron, C-2A.

 

USS Anzio (CG-68); USS Cape St. George (CG-71) and USS Peterson (DD-969) joined USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) as part of her task force.

 

   1995

 

US Naval Forces Central Command and 5th Fleet

 

“The 5th Fleet of the United States Navy maintains a visible deterrent force in the Arabian [Persian] Gulf area”  (Ref. 313A).

 

By July 1995, the course of events made a new numbered fleet necessary. After a 48-year hiatus, the US 5th Fleet was reactivated and it now cruises the Persian Gulf, Red Sea, and Arabian Sea. Its headquarters are in Manama, Bahrain.

 

FIFTH Fleet consist of as many as 25 ships and 15,000 Sailors and Marines. These forces typically include an aircraft carrier battle group, and amphibious ready group, surface combatants, submarines, maritime patrol aircraft, logistics ships and a modest but highly effective fleet support activity” (Ref. 359).

 

“The staff of U.S. Naval Forces Central Command (NAVCENT) moved ashore in Bahrain in 1993, and USS LA SALLE departed for overhaul and reassignment. U.S. Naval Forces Central Command and U.S. FIFTH Fleet consist of as many as 25 ships and 15,000 Sailors and Marines. These forces typically include an aircraft carrier battle group, and amphibious ready group, surface combatants, submarines, maritime patrol aircraft, logistics ships and a modest but highly effective fleet support activity” (Ref. 359).

 

“Through the 1980s several frigate- and destroyer-type ships and minesweepers were assigned to the Middle East Force as well as support ships.  After the 2 August 1990 Iraqi occupation of Kuwait, the largest armada since World War II assembled in the Gulf in support of Operation Desert Shield.  The Middle East Force found itself operating under operational control of the U.S. Naval Forces Central Command (NAVCENT), an Echelon II command, that supports all naval operations in the U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM) area of responsibility (AOR)” (Ref. 1-Saratoga, 72, 313 & 359).

 

“USS VALCOUR became the first permanent flagship for the Middle East Force in 1961 after an extensive overhaul and redesignation as a miscellaneous command ship. In July 1972, USS LA SALLE replaced VALCOUR as flagship. Middle East Force ships were the first U.S. military units to take action following the August 2, 1990, invasion of Kuwait when they began Maritime Interception Operations in support of United Nations sanctions against Iraq. In January 1991, with the beginning of Operation Desert Storm, the Middle East Force was absorbed into U.S. Naval Forces Central Command, the Naval component of the U.S. Central Command. Central Command is responsible for all U.S. Military activity in the Middle East and eastern Africa. In the aftermath of the 1990/91 Gulf War, U.S. Naval Forces Central Command ships and those of the coalition partners undertook the largest mine clearing operation since World War II. Nearly 1,300 sophisticated sea mines of various types were swept from the Arabian Gulf, providing the safest passage for naval and merchant ships in decades” (Ref. 359).

 

“Since naval forces routinely make up over 70 percent of all US military presence in theater, NAVCENT’s location on the scene is an integral part of USCENTCOM's ability to successfully execute a theater strategy. From major exercises to day-to-day real world operations such as enforcement of UN sanctions, NAVCENT plays a major role in maintaining stability and deterring aggression in the region. The vast majority of NAVCENT’s operating forces are rotationally deployed to the region from either the Pacific Fleet or the Atlantic Fleet.

 

For the early years of its existence, its forces normally consisted of an Aircraft Carrier Battle Group (CVBG), an Amphibious Ready Group (ARG), surface combatants, submarines, maritime patrol and reconnaissance aircraft, and logistics ships. However, with the War on Terrorism, the naval strategy of the US has changed. The regular deployments of the Cold War are now a thing of the past. Consequently, the policy of always maintaining a certain number of ships in various parts of the world is also over.

 

The 5th Fleet was initially established 26 April 1944 from Central Pacific Force, and disbanded after the war. In the era of the first Gulf War, the region was patrolled by ships from the East and West Coasts, but no defined fleet existed” (Ref. 313A).

 

Through the 1980s several frigate- and destroyer-type ships and minesweepers were assigned to the Middle East Force as well as support ships. After the 1990 Iraqi occupation of Kuwait, the largest armada since World War II assembled in the Gulf in support of Operation Desert Shield, and ultimately Operation Desert Storm in 1991. The Middle East Force found itself operating under operational control of U.S. Naval Forces Central Command where it remained following the war. During Desert Storm in 1991, the Commander, Seventh Fleet served as naval component commander for Central Command. Since the Gulf War, NAVCENT fulfilled the roles of both a naval component command and as the fleet command. Ships from the East and West Coasts comprised the fleet, but it operated without a traditionally understood structure or number” (Ref. 313).

 

Operation Joint Endeavor

 

Beginning in December 1995, US and allied nations deployed peacekeeping forces to Bosnia in support of Operation Joint Endeavor. Task Force Eagle, comprised of 20,000 American soldiers, is implementing the military elements of the Dayton Peace Accords in support of Operation Joint Endeavor. This operation marked the first commitment of forces in NATO's history as well as the first time since World War II that American and Russian soldiers have shared a common mission. Today, thousands of people are alive in Bosnia because of these soldiers' service.

 

In the first three months of Operation Joint Endeavor operations, Air Force mobility forces flew 3,000 missions, carried over 15,600 troops and delivered more than 30,100 short tons of cargo. These statistics reflect the presence of the C-17, which was systematically employed in a major contingency for the first time. The limited airfield at Tuzla, was the major port of debarkation in Bosnia-Herzegovina. During the first critical month of operations, the C-17 flew slightly more than 20 percent of the missions into Tuzla but delivered over 50 percent of the cargo” (Ref. 456).

 

AIRCRAFT CARRIER

DEP

AIR WING

T.C.

DEPART

RETURN

Days at  Sea

USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) - 2nd, 6th & Central Command

(4th Red Sea)

NoLant

4th Med

2nd ODF

SG

2nd Adriatic

5th Suez Canal

3rd Red Sea

ODF

6th Suez Canal

2nd OSW

Med

NoLant

CVW-8

AJ

22 Mar 1995

22 Sep 1995

Europe

Middle East

Iraq no Fly Zone

5th FWFD

184-days

2nd Operation Deny Flight and Sharp Guard over the skies of Bosnia and the Adriatic in the U.S. no-fly zone over Bosnia, while Deny Flight evolved into Operation Deliberate Force and 2nd Operation Southern Watch, enforcing the no-fly zone south of the 32nd parallel in Iraq.

 

Ports of call include:

 

Squadrons: VF-41 (F-14A); VF-14 (F-14A); VFA-15 (F/A-18C); VFA-87 (F/A-18C); VAW-124 (E-2C); VAQ-141 (EA-6B); VS-24 (S-3B); VQ-6 Det. D (ES-3A) and HS-3 (HH/SH-60H/F).

 

USS Ticonderoga (CG-47) and USS Hue City (CG-66) USS Batfish (SSN-681) joined USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) as part of her task force.

USS America (CVA-66) -

2nd, 5th, 6th, Central Command & 7th

(3rd Arabian / Persian Gulf dep. and

15th & 16th Red Sea, Gulf of Aden & Arabian Sea voy.)

NorLant

17th Med

ODF

PP & SG

4th Adriatic Sea

15th Suez Canal

3rd Red Sea

BS 95

1st OSW

6th Indian Ocean

OCH

UNISOM-II in Somalia

16th Suez Canal

Med

NorLant

CVW-1

AB

26 Aug 1995

24 Feb 1996

Europe

Bosnia-Herzegovina,

Middle East

Iraq War no Fly Zone

African nation of Somalia

30th FWFD

183-days

Operations Deny Flight and Deliberate Force, under the control of the U.N. and NATO, while Operation Deny Flight transitioned to Decisive Edge in support of the IFOR Operation Joint Endeavor. Carrier and shore-based squadrons continued flight operations in support of joint and combined enforcement of a U.N.-mandated no-fly zone in the airspace over the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Operation Decisive Edge then transitioned to Deliberate Guard, BRIGHT STAR 95 and her 2nd Operation Southern Watch, enforcing the no-fly zone south of the 32nd parallel in Iraq.

 

Port calls included Trieste, Italy and Valletta, Malta, Spain.

 

Squadrons: VF-102, F-14A; VMFA-251, FA-18C; VFA-82, FA-18C; VFA-86, FA-18C; VA-85, A-6E; VAW-123, E-2C; HS-11, SH-3H; VAQ-137, EA-6B; VS-32, S-3B; VRC-40 Det. 3, C-2A and HMM-162 Det. A, CH-46E.

 

USS Monterey (CG-61), USS Normandy (CG-60), USS Scott (DDG-995) and USS Oklahoma City (SSN-723) and USS Butte (AE-27) were part of USS America (CV-66) battle group” (Ref. 84A).

 

USS America Association (CV-66) http://www.ussamerica.org/Airwing.htm

SHARP GUARD http://www.nato.int/ifor/general/shrp-grd.htm

VAW-123 http://www.cacclw.navy.mil/vaw123/history.html

VS-32 http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/navy/vs-32.htm

VMAQ-3 https://www.2maw.usmc.mil/MAG14/vmaq3/vmaq3info/history.asp

VF-102 http://www.informationdelight.info/encyclopedia/entry/VF-102

http://www.topedge.com/alley/squadron/lant/vf102his.htm

http://www.anft.net/f-14/f14-squadron-vf102.htm

 

  1996

 

 Operation Southern Watch and Operation Vigilant Warrior

 

Out of Operation Vigilant Warrior came a unanimously approved resolution by the U.N. Security Council. United Nations Security Council Resolution 949 prohibits Iraq from using its forces to threaten neighboring countries or U.N. operations in Iraq, and from deploying units south of the 32nd parallel or from otherwise enhancing its military capabilities in Southern Iraq. Operation Southern Watch was initially an operation in which the Gulf states cooperated.

 

Following an additional Iraqi confrontation in September 1996 - Operation Desert Strike - JTF-SWA continues to perform its primary mission of monitoring airspace now south of the 33rd parallel in Southern Iraq using air forces deployed by the U.S. Air Force and Navy carrier battle groups in the Arabian Gulf and Red Sea, as well as the United Kingdom’s Royal Air Force. Other coalition forces also patrol the no-fly zone south of the 32nd parallel. Coalition naval forces also provide maritime intercept operations in the northern Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf in support of U.N. sanctions against Iraq. JTF-SWA includes American, British, French and Saudi Arabian forces. JTF-SWA headquarters consists of a command section and five directorates: J-1 for personnel, J-2 for intelligence, J-3 for operations, J-4 for logistics and J-6 for communications, plus a public affairs and legal staff.

 

U.S. Navy, Marine and Air Force units continued to enforce the U.N.-mandated no-fly zone over Iraq, protecting Iraqi minority populations. Naval operations in 1996 included extensive Navy and Marine aircraft sorties from the carriers USS America (CV-66), USS Nimitz (CVN-68), USS George Washington (CVN-73), USS Carl Vinson (CVN-70), USS Enterprise (CVN-65), USS Kitty Hawk (CV63) and amphibious assault ship Peleliu (LHA 4)” (Ref. 457).

 

Operation Provide Comfort

 

Operation Provide Comfort ended officially on 31 December 1996 at the request of the Islamic Government of Turkey who wanted to improve relations with Iran and Iraq” (Ref. 453).

 

AIRCRAFT CARRIER

DEP

AIR WING

T.C.

DEPART

RETURN

Days at  Sea

USS George Washington (CVN 73) - 2nd, 6th, 5th & Central Command (2nd Arabian / Persian Gulf dep.) (3rd voyage) (5th & 6th Red Sea & Gulf of Aden))

NorLant

2nd Med

OSG

OJE

5th Suez Canal

2nd OSW

6th Suez Canal

Med

NorLant

CVW-7

AG

26 Jan 1996

23 Jul 1996

Europe

Bosina

Middle East

Iraq no Fly Zone

Persian Gulf

3rd FWFD

181-days

Operation Sharp Guard during the crisis in Bosnia, operating with  NATO supporting request of UNPROFOR, allied nations peacekeeping forces to Bosnia, implementing the military elements of the Dayton Peace Accords in support of Operation Joint Endeavor and her 2nd Operation Southern Watch, enforcing the no-fly zone south of the 32nd parallel in Iraq

 

Ports of call included: Triest, Italy; Marseille, France; Jebel Ali, U.A.E.; Las Palmas, Spain; Naples, Italy and Cannes.

 

Squadrons: VF-143, F-14B; VFA-136, FA-18C(N); VFA-131, FA-18C(N); VA-34 (*1); A-6E; VAW-121, E-2C; HS-5, SH-60F / HH-60H; VAQ-140; EA-6B; VS-31, S-3B; VQ-6 Det. B, ES-3A and VRC-40 Det. 1, C-2A.

 

(*1) redesignated VFA-34 on Sep.30, 1996

 

USS George Washington (CVN-73) strike group is comprised of Carrier Air Wing 7; the guided-missile cruiser USS San Jacinto (CG-56); guided-missile destroyers USS Barry (DDG-52) and USS Carney (DDG-55); destroyers USS Arthur W. Radford (DD-968) and USS Conolly (DD-979); guided-missile frigate USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG-58); replenishment and fast support ships USS Merrimack (AO-179) and USS Mount Baker (AE-34); and attack submarines USS Scranton (SSN-756) and USS Baltimore (SSN-704).

USS Enterprise (CVN-65) - 2nd, 6th, 5th & Central Command            (2nd & 3rd Red Sea & Gulf of Aden & 1st Arabian / Persian Gulf dep., 2nd aerial Arabian /  Persian Gulf dep. & 6th  North Arabian Sea dep.)

NorLant

4th Med

Adriatic

Operation Decisive Endeavour

2nd Suez Canal

19th Indian Ocean

1st OSW

3rd Suez Canal

Med

NorLant

CVW-17

AA

28 Jun 1996

20 Dec 1996

Europe

Middle East

Iraq no Fly Zone

23rd FWFD

176-Days

TransLant 96, an ASW exercise, at the beginning of the ship’s participation in Operation Decisive Endeavour in the Adriatic to again support the “No-Fly Zone” over Bosnia-Herzegovina, Juniper Hawk and her 1st Operation Southern Watch, enforcing the no-fly zone south of the 32nd parallel in Iraq and Multi-national GulfEx 97-1.

The deployment marked the end of an era when VA-75 retired the A-6E Intruder from the Navy.

 

Ports of call include:

 

CVW-17 Squadrons include: VF-103, Jolly Rogers, Fighter Squadron. Grumman, F-14B Tomcat, Jet Fighter; VFA-83, Rampagers, Strike Fighter Squadron, McDonnell-Douglas, FA-18C Hornet, Jet Strike Fighter; VFA-81, Sunliners, Strike Fighter Squadron, McDonnell-Douglas, FA-18C Hornet, Jet Strike Fighter; VA-75 (*1), Sunday Punchers, Attack Squadron, Grumman, A-6E Intruder, Jet Attack Bomber; VAW-125, Tigertails or Torchbearers, Carrier Airborne Early Warning Squadron, Grumman, E-2C Hawkeye, Electronics; HS-15, Red Lions, Helicopter Anti-Submarine Squadron, Sikorsky, SH-60F / HH-60H Seahawk -Anti-submarine - Search and Rescue; VAQ-132, Scorpions, Tactical Electronics Warfare Squadron, Grumman, EA-6B Prowler, Jet Attack Bomber - Special electronic installation; VS-30, Diamondcutters, Air Anti-Submarine Squadron, Lockheed, S-3B Viking - Anti-Submarine; VQ-6 Det. C, Black Ravens, Fleet Air Reconnaissance Squadron, Lockheed ES-3A Viking - Special electronic installation and VRC-40 Det. 2, Rawhides, Fleet Logistics Support Squadron, Grumman, C-2A/US-3A Greyhound. (*1) disestablished on Mar.21, 1997. (*1) disestablished on Mar.21, 1997.

 

USS Philippine Sea (CG-58); USS Gettysburg (CG-64); USS Mitscher (DDG-52); USS Hayler (DD-997); USS Klakring (FFG-42); USS Robert G. Bradley (FFG-49); USS Supply (AOE-6) and USS Pittsburgh (SSN-720) joined USS Enterprise (CVN-65) as part of her task force.

USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) -2nd, 6th & Central Command

(2nd Arabian / Persian Gulf dep.)

(5th & 6th Red Sea & 3rd & 4th Gulf of Aden)

NoLant

5th Med

2nd ODG

7th Suez Canal

Canal

3rd OSW

8th Suez Canal

3rd Adriatic

OPC

NoLant

CVW-8

AJ

25 Nov 1996

22 May 1997

Europe

Middle East

Iraq no Fly Zone

6th FWFD

179-days

2nd Operation Deliberate Guard, her 3rd Operation Southern Watch, enforcing the no-fly zone south of the 32nd parallel in Iraq and 2nd Operation Provide Comfort, a military operation by the United States, starting in 1990, to defend Kurds fleeing their homes in northern Iraq in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War that was expanded by the President of the U.S. on 16 April 1991, authorized by UN resolution 688 to include multinational forces with the additional mission of establishing temporary refuge camps in northern Iraq, while this unit was first labeled "Express Care."

 

Ports of call include: Cartagena, Spain; Cannes, France; Antalya, Turkey; Haifa, Israel; Livorno, Italy; Corfu, Greece; Rhodes, Greece; Jebel Ali, U.A.E. and Palma de Mallorca, Spain.

 

Squadrons: VF-32 (F-14B); VMFA-312 (F/A-18C); VFA-37 (F/A-18C); VFA-105 (F/A-18C); VAW-126 (E-2C); VAQ-130 (EA-6B); VS-22 (S-3B); VQ-6 Det. D (ES-3A) and HS-7 (HH/SH-60H/F).

 

USS Carr (FFG-52) and USS Detroit (AOE-4) joined USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) as part of her task force.

 

1997

 

Operation Southern Watch

 

Over 6,000 Air Force personnel are deployed in support of the coalition Operation Southern Watch air operation over southern Iraq. Air Force aircraft and crews had flown 68 percent of the total sorties at the end of January 1997 -- amounting to over 28,800 sorties flown in support of this coalition effort since 1991.

 

The "Gunfighters" of the 366th Wing deployed to Saudi Arabia supporting Operation Southern Watch between 04 February and 01 July 1997. The deployment gradually built up to 1,200 people which represents about one-third of Mountain Home's active-duty population. Also known as America's Air Expeditionary Wing, the 366th deployed 52 aircraft from four squadrons; 18 F-15 Eagles from the 390th Fighter Squadron, 18 F-15E Strike Eagles from the 391st FS, 12 F-16C Fighting Falcons from the 389th FS, and four KC-135R Stratotankers from the 22nd Air Refueling Squadron.

 

The June 1996 bombing of the Khobar Towers in Saudi Arabia accelerated Air Force efforts to protect its forces operating around the globe. Responding to this tragedy, the Air Force, in conjunction with the United States Army, assisted in the repatriation of over 900 DoD military members, civilian personnel and their families. At the same time, the Air Force relocated the majority of its Southern Watch forces to Prince Sultan Air Base at Al Kharj and instituted a series of additional force protection measures throughout US Central Command's area of responsibility” (Ref. 457).

 

Valiant Blitz 97

 

Exercise Valiant Blitz 97 concluded after two days of bilateral-carrier air operations in the Philippine Sea in September 1997. The participation of aircraft carriers USS Independence (CV-62) and USS Nimitz (CVN-68) provided an invaluable opportunity to demonstrate power projection in a unique environment. During a contingency in the Asia-Pacific region, multiple aircraft carriers would be critical to a successful resolution of the crisis. Valiant Blitz allowed the two carriers to operate and train together as they would in a real-world scenario. Conducting exercises like Valiant Blitz can be difficult due to the deployment schedules and operational commitments of carriers around the world. Training between two carriers is extremely valuable because it allows them to work together as a team. Valiant Blitz taught crews how to coordinate strike plans more effectively if the need for force arises. The exercise concluded with both carriers and their airwings working together to break the simulated opposition of several Air Force and Marine Corps aircraft while making an air-to-surface strike approximately 200 miles from Kadena, Okinawa. With the conclusion of Valiant Blitz, Nimitz continued its 'around-the-world' cruise and Independence continued standard flight operations in the western Pacific. Independence's airwing returned to NAF Atsugi Sept. 27 and the ship returned to her home port of Yokosuka, Japan, Sept. 29” (Ref. 1144).

 

AIRCRAFT CARRIER

DEP

AIR WING

T.C.

DEPART

RETURN

Days at  Sea

USS John F. Kennedy     (CV-67) -2nd, 6th, Central Command & 5th (2nd Persian Gulf & 4th & 5th North Arabian Sea)

 

Lant

15th Med

7th Suez Canal

7th Red Sea

5th Gulf of Aden

4th North Arabian Sea

Gulf of Oman

Strait of Hormuz

2nd Persian Gulf

Strait of Hormuz

Gulf of Oman 5th North Arabian Sea

6th Gulf of Aden

8th Red Sea

6th Gulf of Aden

8th Suez Canal

Med

Lant

CVW-8

AJ

29 Apr 1997

28 Oct 1997

Europe

Middle East

Iraq no Fly Zone

Persian Gulf

20th FWFD

183-days

Iles D’Or ’97, Operation Deliberate Guard and Dynamic Mix 1st Operation Southern Watch, INVITEX and Exercise Beacon Flash.

 .

Ports of call included: Malaga, Spain; Antalya, Turkey; Rhodes, Greece; Corfu, Greece; Cannes, France; Koper, Slovenia; Benidorm, Spain; Palma, Spain and Marseille, France.

 

Squdrons: VF-14 (F-14A); VF-41 (F-14A); VFA-87 (F/A-18C); VFA-15 (F/A-18C); VAQ-141 (EA-6B); VAW-124 (E-2C); VS-24 (S-3B); VQ-6 Det.A (ES-3A) and HS-3 (SH/HH-60F/H).

 

USS Vicksburg (CG-69); USS Hue City (CG-66); USS Thomas S. Gates (CG-51); USS Spruance (DD-963); USS John Hancock (DD-981); USS Taylor (FFG-50); USS Albany (SSN-753); USS Jacksonville (SSN-699) and USS Arctic (AOE-8) were part of USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) task force.

USS Nimitz (CVN-68) - 7th, 5th, Central Command & 2nd (6th North Arabian Sea  & 4th Arabian / Persian Gulf)

5th  WestPac

3rd Cape of Good Hope

6th IO

SoLant

WestLant

CVW-9

NG

1 Sep 1997

2 Mar 1998

Home port transfer to the East Coast

Global circum-navigation

16th FWFD

182-days

Home port transfer to Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corp., Newport News, Virginia; Global circumnavigation; ASWEx 97-5, an anti-submarine exercise with submarine Hawkbill (SSN-666) north of the Hawaiian Islands; Nimitz and USS Independence (CV-62) participated in Valiant Blitz off Okinawa; 3rd Operation Southern Watch, to enforce United Nations sanctions against Iraq by patrolling the "No-Fly" zone (The Secretary of Defense directed the carrier battle group to the Gulf early after Iraqi planes breached the zone several times in the last week); 1st Maritime Interception Operations (MIO), coalition efforts to enforce UN Security Council Resolutions imposed against the Iraqis; exercise Eager Archer with the Kuwaitis; exercise Neon Falcon with the Bahrainis; exercise Nautical Artist with the Saudis; exercise Eager Mace with the Kuwaitis and USS Independence (CV-62) relieved Nimitz, enabling the latter to transit the Strait of Hormuz outbound and departed the Arabian/Persian Gulf on 8 February 1998, sailing through the Gulf of Oman and North Arabia Sea, en route to the Gulf of Aden, Bab El Mandeb and the Red Sea on 11 February 1998, anchoring off Port Suez, Egypt, and passed through the Suez Canal the next day at an average speed of advance of eight knots, 12-hours after entering the canal from 13 to 14 February 1998. Nimitz rendezvoused with USS Enterprise (CVN-65) and fast combat support ship Detroit (AOE-4), 750 nautical miles into the Atlantic, and spent two days offloading ammunition from 23 to 25 February 1998. Strong winds and high seas complicated the evolution.

 

Ports of call include: Yokosuka, Japan; Hong Kong; Jebel Ali, UAE and Mayport, Fla.

 

Squadrons: VF-211, F-14A; VMFA-314, FA-18C(N); VFA-146, FA-18C(N); VFA-147, FA-18C(N); VAW-112, E-2C; HS-8, SH-60F/HH-60H; VAQ-138, EA-6B; VS-33, S-3B; VQ-5 Det. B, ES-3A and VRC-30 Det. 4, C-2A.

 

USS Port Royal (CG-73); USS Lake Champlain (CG-57); USS Benfold (DDG-65); USS Kinkaid (DD-965); USS Ford (FFG-54); USS Sacramento (AOE-1) and USS Olympia (SSN-717) joined Nimitz as part of her task force.

USS George Washington (CVN 73) - 2nd, 6th, 5th & Central Command (3rd Arabian / Persian Gulf dep.) (4th voyage) (7th & 8th Red Sea & Gulf of Aden))

NorLant

3rd Med

7th Suez Canal

3rd OSW

8th Suez Canal

Med

NorLant

CVW-1

AB

3 Oct 1997

3 Apr 1998

Europe

Middle East

Iraq no Fly Zone

Persian Gulf

4th FWFD

183-days

Exercise Bright Star '97, a biennial, Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) directed, USCENTCOM scheduled joint/coalition exercise designed to increase regional involvement in pursuit of improved security and defense capabilities, conducted in Egypt and co-hosted by Egypt and the United States, Operation DESERT THUNDER, providing military presence and capability during negotiations between the UN and Iraq over weapons of mass destruction and her 3rd Operation Southern Watch, enforcing the no-fly zone south of the 32nd parallel in Iraq

 

Ports of call include: Mayport Naval Station, Florida.

 

Squadrons: VF-102, F-14B; VMFA-251, FA-18C(N); VFA-82, FA-18C(N); VFA-86, FA-18C; VAW-123, E-2C; HS-11; VAQ-137; EA-6B; VS-32, S-3B; VQ-6 Det. B, ES-3A and VRC-40 Det. 1.

 

USS George Washington (CVN-73) strike group group is comprised of Carrier Air Wing 1; the guided-missile cruisers USS Normandy (CG-60) and USS South Carolina (CGN-37); guided-missile destroyer USS Carney (DDG-64); destroyers USS Conolly (DD-979) and USS John Rodgers (DD-983); guided-missile frigates USS Boone (FFG-28) and USS Underwood (FFG-36); replenishment ship USS Seattle (AOE 3); and attack submarines USS Toledo (SSN-769) and USS Annapolis (SSN-760).

 

1998

 

Operation Southern Watch

 

For four consecutive years funding for Southern Watch and related operations has been provided through a request for supplemental appropriations for the Department of Defense. The requirement for supplemental funds in 1998 was due to the substantial movement of forces to the Persian Gulf region from November 1997-March 1998 in response to Iraq's refusal to comply with United Nations' mandates regarding arms inspections.

 

In April 1998 the Congress appropriated $1,312,400,000 for operations in Southwest Asia as part of the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act.

 

France suspended participation in this operation on 15 December 1998 at the time of the American-British bombing of Iraq in Operation DESERT FOX. France was of the view that the strikes have been going on for more than a year and that tensions persisted. France still has men and equipment present because of military cooperation there. but no longer participates in air operations” (Ref. 457).

 

AIRCRAFT CARRIER

DEP

AIR WING

T.C.

DEPART

RETURN

Days at  Sea

USS John C. Stennis (CVN-74) - 6th, 5th & Central Command

(1st Arabian /Persian Gulf dep.) (1st & 2nd North Arabian Sea))

Lant

1st  Med

1st Suez Canal

1st Red Sea Bab el Mandeb

Gulf of Aden Arabian Sea North Arabian Sea

Gulf of Oman

Strait of Hormuz

Persian Gulf 1st OSW

1st MIO

Strait of Hormuz

Gulf of Oman

North Arabian Sea

Arabian Sea

near the Maldive Is.
1
st IO

south of Australia & east sea
near Fiji Is.
SoPac
near the Johnston Is.
NorEast of Hawaii Is.

EastPac

CVW-7

AG

26 Feb 1998

26 Aug 1998

World Cruise Home port transfer to the West Coast

Europe

Middle East

Iraq no Fly Zone

Persian Gulf

1st FWFD

182-days

1st Operation Southern Watch, enforcing the no-fly zone south of the 32nd parallel in Iraq and 1st Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIO) in support of UN Resolutions and sanctions against Iraq

 

Ports of call included: Jebel Ali, UAE; Manama, Bahrain; Perth, Australia; Hobart, Tasmania and Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

 

Squadrons: VF-143, F-14B; VF-11, F-14B; VFA-136, FA-18C(N); VFA-131, FA-18C(N);

VAQ-140, EA-6B; VAW-121, E-2C   ; HS-5, SH-60F/HH-60H; VS-31, S-3B; VQ-6 Det. C, ES-3A   and VRC-40 Det. 2, C-2A.     

 

John C. Stennis normally operates as the centerpiece of a Carrier Battle Group commanded by a flag officer embarked and consists of four to six other ships and is composed of Carrier Wing 7 and surface and subsurface vessels consisting of the guided-missile cruisers USS San Jacinto (CG-56) and USS Monterey (CG-61); guided-missile destroyers USS Laboon (DDG-58) and USS Cole (DDG-67); destroyer USS Caron (DD-970); guided-missile frigate USS Simpson (FFG-56); replenishment ship USS Bridge (AOE-10); and attack submarines USS Minneapolis-St. Paul (SSN-708) and USS Providence (SSN-719).

USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) -

2nd, 6th, 5th, Central Command       & 7th (3rd Arabian / Persian Gulf dep. & 4th voy. & 7th & 8th Arabian Sea voy.)

NorLant

9th Med

Adriatic Sea 7th Suez Canal    2nd OSW

8th Suez Canal

Med

NorLant

CVW-17

AA

10 Jun 1998

10 Dec 1998

Europe

Middle East

Bosnia-Herzegovina

Iraq no Fly Zone

Persian Gulf

16th FWFD

184-days

Operation Joint Forge and or Operation Deliberate, principally to support NATO air operations for Stabilization Force (SFOR) in the war-torn Bosnia-Herzegovina region developed by Allied planners, Exercises Fancy and Dynamic Mix, her 2nd Operation Southern Watch, enforcing the no-fly zone south of the 32nd parallel in Iraq.

 

Port of calls included Cannes, France, Antalya, Turkey, Corfu, Greece, Cartegena, Spain and Malta.

 

Squadrons: VF-103, Jolly Rogers, Fighter Squadron, F-14B; VFA-34, Blue Blasters, Strike Fighter Squadron, FA-18C(N); VFA-83, Rampagers, Strike Fighter Squadron, FA-18C(N); VFA-81, Sunliners, Strike Fighter Squadron, FA-18C; VAQ-132, Scorpions, Tactical Electronics Warfare Squadron, EA-6B; VAW-125, Tigertails or Torchbearers, Carrier Airborne Early Warning Squadron, E-2C; HS-15, Red Lions, Helicopter Anti-Submarine Squadron, SH-60F / HH-60H; VS-30, Diamondcutters, Sea Control Squadron, S-3B; VQ-6 Det. C, Black Ravens, Fleet Air Reconnaissance Squadron, ES-3A and VRC-40 Det. 2, Rawhides, Fleet Logistics Support Squadron, C-2A.

                         

USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) Strike group, Cruiser-Destroyer Group 8, comprised of Carrier Air Wing 7, Destroyer Squadron 2, consisting of the guided-missile cruisers USS Anzio (CG-68) and USS Cape St. George (CG-71); destroyers USS Stump (DD-978) and USS Deyo (DD-989); replenishment ship USS Supply (AOE-6); and attack submarines USS Atlanta (SSN-712) and Newport News (SSN-750).

USS Kitty Hawk (CV 63) - Pacific Fleet & 7th

EastPac

WestPac

South China Sea

Sea of Japan

 

 

6 Jul 1998

11 Aug 1998

Transfer to 7th Fleet

22nd FWFD

 

RimPac 98 - San, Diego, Ca. to Yokosuka, Japan (NAF Atsugi, Japan) Transfer to Yokosuka, Japan via Hawaii (West Coast to Hawaii) – (6 to 13 July 1998) where she assumed forward deployed duties in Yokosuka, Japan, relieving USS Independence (CV-62) while the two aircraft carriers were in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, embarking CVW-5 air wing from Independence, operating as a forward-deployed unit out of Atsugi Naval Air Station, Japan.

 

Ports of call included: Pearl Harbor, Hawaii and Yokosuka, Japan (NAF Atsugi, Japan).

 

Air Wing ELEVEN was equipped with what were then the Navy's newest aircraft: the F/A-18 Hornet, F-14 Tomcat, EA-6B Prowler, S-3 Viking, E-2C Hawkeye, SH-60 Seahawk and C-2A Greyhound.

 

Squadrons: VF-211, F-14A; VMFA-314, FA-18C(N); VFA-146, FA-18C(N); VFA-147, FA-18C(N); VAW-112, E-2C; HS-8, SH-60F/HH-60H; VAQ-138, EA-6B; VS-33, S-3B and VRC-30 Det. 4, C-2A.

USS Independence (CV-62) - 7th & 3rd (Forward Deployed)

Sea of Japan

WestPac

EastPac

CVW-5

CVW-9

NF

NG

Jul 1998

Aug 1998

Japan transfer

to West Coast

NAF Atsugi, Yokosuka, Japan to the West Coast Transfer via Hawaii

 

CVW-9 Squadrons: VF-211, F-14A; VMFA-314, FA-18C (N); VFA-146, FA-18C (N); VFA-147, FA-18C (N); VAW-112, C-2A; HS-8, SH-60F / HH-60H; VAQ-138, EA-6B; VS-33, S-3A and VRC-30 Det. 4, C-2A.

 

Captain Mark Reed Milliken, USNA 1975, as Commanding Officer and Captain Steven C. Schlientz as Executive Officer.

USS Enterprise (CVN-65) – 2nd, 6th, 5th & Central Command            (4th, 5th, 6th

& 7th Red Sea & Gulf of Aden voy. & 2nd Arabian / Persian Gulf dep., 3rd aerial Arabian / Persian Gulf  dep. & 7th North Arabian Sea dep.) – EastLant

Strait of Gibraltar

5th Med

4th Suez Canal

Red Sea

Bab-el-Mandeb

Gulf of Aden

North Arabian Sea

Gulf of Oman

Strait of Hormuz

Persian Gulf

ODF

2nd OSW

Strait of Hormuz

Gulf of Oman North Arabian Sea

Gulf of Aden

Bab-el-Mandeb

Red Sea

5th Suez Canal

Med

Aegean Sea

2nd Adriatic Sea

ODF

Ionian Sea

InvitEx Plus 99, an AAW, ASW and ASUW Tyrrhenian Sea

Adriatic Sea ODF

Med

EJS

6th Suez Canal

Red Sea

Bab-el-Mandeb

Gulf of Aden

North Arabian Sea

Gulf of Oman

Strait of Hormuz

3rd OSW

Persian Gulf

Strait of Hormuz

Gulf of Oman

North Arabian Sea

Gulf of Aden

Bab-el-Mandeb

Red Sea

7th Suez Canal

Med

EastLant

WestLant

CVW-3

AC

6 Nov 1998

6 May 1999

Europe Middle East

Iraq no Fly Zone

Persian Gulf

24th FWFD

182-Days

 

Operations in the Aegean Sea, 2nd Adriatic Sea in support of Operation Deliberate Forge (ODF), NATO operations in support of Stabilization Force (SFOR), established in response to the fighting in Kosovo, former Yugoslavia, her CONOPs “coordinated surveillance and defensive efforts” between TF 60, the French Foch TF and NATO Standing Naval Forces Med, InvitEx Plus 99, an AAW, ASW and ASUW exercise with French, Italians and Dutch forces in the Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas, Operation Allied Force, beginning after her departure for Southwest Asia, participated in Exercise Juniper Stallion in the Mediterranean Sea, an exercise with Israeli forces before returning to the Arabian/Persian Gulf, Operation Desert Fox, a four-day Coalition air campaign against Iraq in response to that country’s failure to cooperate with UN resolutions and her 2nd Operation Southern Watch, enforcing the no-fly zone south of the 32nd parallel in Iraq in the Arabian/Persian Gulf.

 

Ports of call include: Jebel Ali, UAE; Crete and Rijeka, Bosnia.

 

CVW-17 Squadrons include: VF-32, Swordsmen, Fighter Squadron, Grumman, F-14B Tomcat, Jet Fighter; VMFA-312, Checkerboards, Marine Fighter Attack Squadron, McDonnell-Douglas, FA-18C (N) Hornet, Jet Strike Fighter; VFA-37, Bulls, Strike Fighter Squadron, McDonnell-Douglas, FA-18C (N), Hornet, Jet Strike Fighter; VFA-105, Gunslingers, Strike Fighter Squadron, McDonnell-Douglas, FA-18C (N), Hornet, Jet Strike Fighter; VAQ-130, Zappers, Tactical Electronics Warfare Squadron, Grumman, EA-6B Prowler, Jet Attack Bomber - Special electronic installation; VAW-126, Seahawks, Carrier Airborne Early Warning Squadron, Grumman, E-2C Hawkeye, Electronics; HS-7, Dusty Dogs, Helicopter Anti-Submarine Squadron, Sikorsky, SH-60F / HH-60H Seahawk -Anti-submarine - Search and Rescue; VS-22, Checkmates, Air Anti-Submarine Squadron, Lockheed, S-3B Viking - Anti-Submarine; VQ-6 Det. A, Black Ravens, Fleet Air Reconnaissance Squadron, Lockheed ES-3A Viking - Special electronic installation and VRC-40 Det. 2, Rawhides, Fleet Logistics Support Squadron, Grumman, C-2A/US-3A Greyhound.

 

USS Philippine Sea (CG-58); USS Gettysburg (CG-64); USS Stout (DDG-55); USS Nicholson (DD-982); USS Hayler (DD-997); USS Carr (FFG-52); USS Miami (SSN-755) and USS Detroit (AOE-4) joined USS Enterprise (CVN-65) as part of her task force.

 

 

1999

 

Operation Southern Watch

 

Coalition aircraft do not target civilian populations or infrastructure and seek to avoid injury to civilians and damage to civilian facilities. However, according to published reports, between January 1999 and April 2000 air operations have caused the deaths of 175 civilians and wounded nearly 500.

 

By early 2001 pilots had entered the southern "no-fly" zone in Iraq 153,000 times since 1992. Not one pilot has been lost. Between February 2000 and February 2001 allied pilots entered the zone 10,000 times. On 500 occasions, the Iraqis fixed radar on the jets or engaged them with anti-aircraft weapons” (Ref. 457).

 

Methodology

 

“Until mid-2002, tracking the number of Southern Watch strikes against Iraqi targets was particularly difficult. CENTCOM releases prior to 2001 are extremely vague and contradictory, often headlines reading that "sites" plural had been attacked though the text of the release lacks sufficient specific information for one to determine whether the sites are at the same location or whether they are in differrent areas. Often CENTCOM releases discuss strikes on multiple types of targets which can also further confuse the counts.

 

The result is that there are conflicting estimates as to how many strikes occurred. Depending on whether or not one rounds down the number of strikes (attacks on multiple targets at one location equals one strike) the estimate could be between 34 and 38, or if one rounds up (attacks on multiple targets equal multiple strikes) the number of strikes would be 45. Adding to the confusion, on Sept. 30, 2002, during a DOD briefing, General Myers stated that there were 32 strikes in 2001” (Ref. 457).

 

 

 

http://www.defenselink.mil/specials/kosovo/images/balkans1.jpg

 

Operation Allied Force Objective: "Our military objective is to degrade and damage the military and security structure that President Milosevic (Yugoslav President) has used to depopulate and destroy the Albanian majority in Kosovo." 


(From prepared statement of William S. Cohen, Secretary of Defense, to the Senate Armed Services Committee on 15 April 1999.) 

 

NATO Goals: Air strikes will be pursued until President Milosevic:

 

· Ensures a verifiable stop to all military action and the immediate ending of violence and repression 

· Ensures the withdrawal from Kosovo of the military, police and paramilitary forces 

· Agrees to the stationing in Kosovo of an international military presence 

· Agrees to the unconditional and safe return of all refugees and displaced persons and unhindered access to them by humanitarian aid organizations 

 

Provides credible assurance of his willingness to work on the basis of the Rambouillet Accords in the establishment of a political framework agreement for Kosovo in conformity with international law and the Charter of the United Nations. 

 

From North Atlantic Council statement, 12 April 1999

Time of initial attack: 2:00 PM EST, 24 March 1999.
Suspension of bombing: 10:00 AM EST, 10 June 1999.
Bombing campaign halted: 10:50 AM EST, 20 June 1999.

http://www.defenselink.mil/specials/kosovo

http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/allied_force.htm

 

AIRCRAFT CARRIER

DEP

AIR WING

T.C.

DEPART

RETURN

Days at  Sea

USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) - 2nd, 6th, Central Command & 5th

(3rd Arabian / Persian Gulf dep.)

(7th & 8th Red Sea & 5th & 6th Gulf of Aden)

NoLant

6th Med

1st Ionian Sea

NATO's AF

SHO

NA

9th Suez Canal

4th OSW

10th Suez Canal

NoLant

CVW-8

AJ

26 Mar 1999

22 Sep 1999

Europe

Middle East

Iraq no Fly Zone

7th FWFD

181-days

NATO's Operation Allied Force, Operation Noble Anvil, Operation Shining Hope and 4th Operation Southern Watch, enforcing the no-fly zone south of the 32nd parallel in Iraq.

 

Ports of call include: Antalya, Turkey; Cannes, France; Palma, Spain; Manama, Bahrain and Rhodes, Greece.

 

Squadrons: VF-14 (F-14A); VF-41 (F-14A); VFA-15 (F/A-18C); VFA-87 (F/A-18C); VAQ-141 (EA-6B); VAW-124 (E-2C); VS-24 (S-3B) and HS-3 (HH/SH-60H/F).

 

USS Leyte Gulf (CG-55); USS Vella Gulf (CG-72); USS Ramage (DDG-61); USS Gonzalez (DDG-66); USS Ross (DDG-71); USS Peterson (DD-969); USS Halyburton (FFG-40); USS Elrod (FFG-55); USS Albuquerque (SSN-706); USS Boise (SSN-764) and USS Arctic (AOE-8) joined USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) as part of her task force.

USS John F. Kennedy     (CV-67) - 2nd, 6th, Central Command & 5th (3rd Persian Gulf & 6th & 7th North Arabian Sea)

 

Lant

16th Med

9th Suez Canal

9th Red Sea

7th Gulf of Aden

6th North Arabian Sea

Gulf of Oman

Strait of Hormuz

3rd Persian Gulf

Strait of Hormuz

Gulf of Oman 7th North Arabian Sea

8th Gulf of Aden

10th Red Sea

10th Suez Canal

Med

Lant

CVW-1

AB

17 Sep 1999

19 Mar 2000

Europe Middle East

Iraq no Fly Zone

Persian Gulf

21st FWFD

185-day

Exercises Frisian Flag ’99, Bright Star 1999 and 2nd Operation Southern Watch.

Ports of call include: Malta, officially the Republic of Malta, is a Southern European island country comprising an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea; Al Aqaba Jordan, the only coastal city of Jordan, strategically located at the northeastern tip of the Red Sea; Manama, Bahrain, a small island country situated near the western shores of the Persian Gulf; Jebel Ali, United Arab Emirates, Jebel Ali (Arabic: جبل علي‎) is a port town, located 35 kilometers (22 mi) southwest of the city of Dubai in the United Arab Emirates. The Port of Jebel Ali is situated in Jebel Ali; Dubai x 2 Dubai (/duːˈbaɪ/ doo-BY; Arabic: دبي Dubayy, Gulf pronunciation: [dʊˈbɑj]) is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).[4] It is located on the southeast coast of the Persian Gulf and is one of the seven emirates that make up the country; Barcelona, Spain, the capital of Catalonia and the second largest city in Spain and Malaga, a city and a municipality, capital of the Province of Málaga, in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Spain, (/ˌændəˈluːsiəˌ -ziəˌ -ʒⁱə/; Spanish: Andalucía [andaluˈθi.a, -si.a]) is a south-western European region established as an autonomous community of the Kingdom of Spain; Tarragona, Spain, (English /ˌtɑːrəˈɡoʊnə/, Catalan: [tərəˈɣonə], Spanish: [taraˈɣona]; Phoenician: טַרְקוֹן, Tarqon; Latin: Tarraco) is a port city located in the north-east of Spain on the Mediterranean Sea and Bermuda /bɜːrˈmjuːdə/, also referred to in legal documents as, fully, "the Bermudas or Somers Isles",[6][7][8][9] is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean, located off the east coast of North America. Its nearest landmass is Cape Hatteras, United States, about 1,070 km (665 mi) to the west-northwest. It is about 1,236 km (768 mi) south of Cape Sable Island, Canada, and 1,578 km (981 mi) north of Puerto Rico. Its capital city is Hamilton.

 

Squadrons: VF-102,     F-14B; VMFA-251, FA-18C(N); VFA-82,  FA-18C(N); VFA-86; FA-18C; VAQ-137, EA-6B; VAW-123, E-2C; HS-11, SH-60F/HH-60H; VS-32, S-3B and VRC-40 Det. 2, C-2A.

 

USS John F. Kennedy (CVA-67) battle group included guided missile cruiser USS Monterey (CG-61); guided misle detroyers USS McFaul (DDG-74), USS Carney (DDG-64); USS The Sullivans (DDG-68); destroyers USS John Hancock (DD-981); destroyer USS Spruance (DD-963); guided missile frigates USS Underwood (FFG-36); and USS Taylor (FFG-50) and USS Scranton (SSN-756); USS Jacksonville (SSN-699) and USS Seattle (AOE-3).

 

AIRCRAFT CARRIER

DEP

AIR WING

T.C.

DEPART

RETURN

Days at  Sea

USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) -

2nd, 6th, 5th, Central Command       & 7th (4th Arabian / Persian Gulf dep., 5th voy. & 9th & 10th Arabian Sea voy.)

NorLant

10h Med

Adriatic Sea 9th Suez Canal    3rd OSW

10th Suez Canal

Med

NorLant

CVW-7

AG

18 Feb 2000

18 Aug 2000

Europe

Middle East

Bosnia-Herzegovina

Iraq no Fly Zone

Persian Gulf

17th FWFD

177-days

"Millennium Cruise"

Operation Deliberate Forge, principally to support NATO air operations for Stabilization Force (SFOR) in the war-torn Bosnia-Herzegovina region developed by Allied planners, Exercises Juniper Stallion, Jack Howl and Noble Suzanne, her 3rd Operation Southern Watch, enforcing the no-fly zone south of the 32nd parallel in Iraq and Indigo Anvil, an exercise with the Saudi Arabians.

 

Ports of call included: St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands; Souda Bay, Crete, Greece; Corfu, Greece; Trieste, Italy; Dubrovnik, Croatia; Antalya, Turkey; Haifa, Israel; Bahrain; Jebel Ali, U.A.E.; Lisbon, Portugal and Mayport, Florida.

 

Squadrons: VF-143, Pukin' Dogs, Fighter Squadron, F-14B; VF-11, Red Rippers, Fighter Squadron, F-14B; VFA-136, Knight Hawks, Strike Fighter Squadron, FA-18C(N) / NFA-18C; VFA-131, Wildcats, Strike Fighter Squadron, A-6E / A6-E/KA-6D; VAQ-140, Tactical Electronics Warfare Squadron, EA-6B; VAW-121, Bluetails, Carrier Airborne Early Warning Squadron, E-2C; HS-5, Night Dippers, Helicopter Anti-Submarine Squadron, SH-3H; VS-31, Top Cats, Air Anti-Submarine Squadron, S-3B and VRC-40 Det. Rawhides, Fleet Logistics, Support Squadron, C-2A.

 

USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) Strike group comprised of Carrier Air Wing 7, Cruiser-Destroyer Group 8, and Destroyer Squadron 26, consisting of the guided-missile cruisers USS Anzio (CG-68) and USS Port Royal (CG-73); guided-missile frigate USS Laboon (DDD-58) and USS Mahan (DDG-72); guided-missile frigates USS Kauffman (FFG-59) and replenishment ships USS Kanawha (T-AO-196 ) and USS Mount Baker (T-AE-34); attack submarine USS Hartford (SSN-768) and USS Springfield (SSN 761). Amphibious Squadron 8 was assigned in 2000.

USS George Washington (CVN-73) - 2nd, 6th, 5th & Central Command (4th Arabian / Persian Gulf dep.)  (5th voyage) (9th & 10th Red Sea & Gulf of Aden))

NorLant

4th Med

Aaegean

EDG

Ionian Sea Slunj 2000

9th Suez Canal

4th OSW

PHIBLEX 00

10th Suez Canal

Ionian Sea Adriatic Sea Med

NorLant

CVW-17

AA

21 Jun 2000

19 Dec 2000

Europe

Middle East

Iraq no Fly Zone

Persian Gulf

6th FWFD

182-days

NATO Exercise Destined Glory (DG 00) 2002 in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean Seas (Ionian Sea), near Greece and Turkey, designed to improve the southern region’s capability to carry out combined, joint operations focusing on carrier, air, maritime and amphibious, while the SAIPAN ARG, with the 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU) embarked, will be involved in extensive operations and international exercises throughout the Mediterranean, including presence operations in the Adriatic Sea when tensions rose in the region after presidential elections in Yugoslavia and will be the key players in Slunj 2000 (a bilateral exercise with Croatia) in the Ionian Sea, PHIBLEX 00 and her 4th Operation Southern Watch, enforcing the no-fly zone south of the 32nd parallel in Iraq.

 

Ports of call include: Antalya, Turkey; Jebel Ali, UAE; Bahrain, UAE; Jebel Ali, UAE; Bahrain, UAE; Corfu, Greece; Dubrovnik, Croatia; Trieste, Italy; Naples, Italy and Palma, Spain.

 

Squadrons: VF-103, F-14B; VFA-34, FA-18C(N); VFA-83, FA-18C(N); VFA-81, FA-18C; VAQ-132, EA-6B; VAW-125, E-2C; HS-15; SH-60F / HH-60H; VS-30, S-3B and VRC-40 Det. 4.

 

USS George Washington (CVN-73) strike group is comprised of Carrier Air Wing 17; Cruiser Destroyer Group 2 and Destroyer Squadron 22, consisting of the guided-missile cruiser USS Normandy (CG-60); guided-missile destroyers USS Donald Cook (DDG-75) and USS Cole (DDG-67); destroyers USS Briscoe (DD-977) and USS Caron (DD-970); guided-missile frigates USS Hawes (FFG-53) and USS Simpson (FFG 56); replenishment ship USNS Supply (AOE-6); and attack submarines USS Albany (SSN-753) and USS Pittsburgh (SSN-720). Amphibious Squadron 4 was assigned in 2000.

USS Harry S. Truman (CVN-75) - 2nd & 6th, 5th & Central Command

(1st Arabian /Persian Gulf dep.) (1st & 2nd Red Sea & Gulf of Aden)

NorLant

1st Med

1st Suez Canal

1st OSW

1st EAG

2nd Suez Canal

Med

NorLant

CVW-3

AC

28 Nov 2000

23 May 2001

Europe

Middle East

Iraq no Fly Zone

Persian Gulf

2nd FWFD

177-days

1st Operation Southern Watch, enforcing the no-fly zone south of the 32nd parallel in Iraq, numerous international exercises during 2001, including 1st Exercise Arabian Gauntlet, an 11-nation exercise that involved more than 20 ships and Maritime Interception Operations in the Northern Arabian Gulf.

 

Ports of call included: Jebel Ali, UAE twice; Bahrain, UAE; Rhodes, Greece.

 

CVW-3 Squadrons: VF-32, F-14B; VMFA-312, FA-18C(N); VFA-37, FA-18C(N); VFA-105, FA-18C(N); VAQ-130, EA-6B; VAW-126, E-2C; HS-7, SH-60F / HH-60H; VS-22, S-3B and VRC-40 Det. 1, C-2A.

 

HSTCSG comprises of USS Harry S. Truman (CVN-75), CVW-3, Escort and DESRON Ships that included: USS San Jacinto (CG-56); USS Arleigh Burke (DDG-51); USS Mitscher (DDG-57); USS Porter (DDG-78); USS Stump (DD-978); USS Deyo (DD-989); USS Carr (FFG-52); USS Norfolk (SSN-714) and USS Alexandria (SSN-757). USS San Jacinto (CG-56) severed as the Air Warfare Commander and only AEGIS cruiser in the Harry S. Truman Battle Group and used its SPY-1 Radar and command and control communications suite to help maintain regional stability through the enforcement of the Iraqi Southern ‘No-Fly’ zone and the conduct of Maritime Interception Operations in the Northern Arabian Gulf.

 

U. S. AIRCRAFT CARRIERS RECORD OF

EAST/WEST COAST TRANSFERS AND TRANSITS

(Panama Canal, Cape Horn, Cape of Good Hope and Suez Canal)

 

Summary Total - September 1945 to Present

 

U. S. Aircraft Carrier Deployments and or both Panama Canal, Cape Horn, Cape of Good Hope and Suez Canal Transits and East /West Coast Transfers

Panama Canal, Cape Horn, Cape of Good Hope and Suez Canal Transits and East Coast/West Coast Transfers

 

Part I of VIII – 1928 to 1945

Part II of VIII – 1946 to 1969

Part III of VIII – 1970 to 1989

Part IV of VIII – 1990 to 1993

Part V of VIII – 1994 to 2000

Part VI of VIII – 2001 to 2005

Part VII of VIII – 2006 to 2012

Part VIII of VIII – 2013 to Present

 

Panama Canal, Cape Horn, Cape of Good Hope and Suez Canal Transits and East Coast/West Coast Transfers

Part V of VIII – 1994 to 2000

 USS CORAL SEA (CV 43)

Operations Evening Light and Eagle Claw, A Sailors tale of his Tour of duty in the U.S. Navy (August 1977 to February 1983)

 

A Sailors tale of his Tour of duty in the U.S. Navy - Operation Evening Light And Eagle Claw -

 

Book - ISBN NO.

978-1-4276-0454-5

EBook - ISBN NO.

978-1-329-15473-5

 

Operations Evening Light and Eagle Claw (24 April 1980) Iran and Air Arm History (1941 to Present)

 

Operations Evening Light and Eagle Claw (24 April 1980) Iran and Air Arm History (1941 to Present)

 

Book ISBN NO.

xxxxxxxxxxxxx

EBook ISBN NO.

978-1-329-19945-3

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA  Vol. I (10 July 1944 to 31 December 1975)

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA Vol. I (10 July 1944 to 31 December 1975) -

 

Book ISBN NO.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

EBook ISBN NO.

978-1-329-54596-0

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. II (1 January 1976 to 25 August 1981)

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. II (1 January 1976 to 25 August 1981) -

 

Book ISBN NO.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

EBook ISBN NO.

978-1-329-54790-2

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. III (20 August 1981 to 26 April 1990)

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. III (20 August 1981 to 26 April 1990) -

 

Book ISBN NO.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

EBook ISBN NO.

978-1-329-55111-4

 

U. S. AIRCRAFT CARRIER SHIP HISTORY (1920 to 2016)

 

U. S. AIRCRAFT

CARRIER SHIP

HISTORY (1920 to 2016)

 

Book - ISBN NO.

978-1-4276-0465-1

EBook - ISBN NO.

978-1-365-25019-4

Library of Congress

Control Number: 

2008901616

(Book Version)

 

U. S. AIRCRAFT CARRIERS REDESIGNATED AND OR RECLASSIFIED (1953 to 2016)

 

U. S. AIRCRAFT

CARRIERS

REDESIGNATED

AND OR

RECLASSIFIED

(1953 to 2016)

 

BOOK - ISBN NO.

978-1-4276-0452-1

EBook - ISBN NO.

978-1-365-25041-5

Library of Congress

(Book Version)

2008901619